The Skin of the Space Race

While visiting with Dr. Enzmann the other day I received some instructions. He wanted me to take notes for a letter he wanted to be written. I asked for whom it would be written, he said, The World. I told him the world was a big place and asked how I was to accomplish this task. He said, “that’s easy.” It is one of his favorite retorts, but he never tells how. In applying some analytical thinking to this request, I realized that what he meant was to write an article for our readers. He assumes one day they will be the world.

Dr. Enzmann has been my teacher and mentor for decades. He is a good teacher, but a difficult one. He asks rhetorical questions and what if’s and expects an answer. He never gives you the answer; if you become exasperated, he gives you a hint. I have said many times that his teaching style is to frustrate and exacerbate his students so much that they never forget what they learned. It works, but most of his students go away and don’t come back. I always understood the value of what I was learning, and I stayed. For decades.

In his room, where all teaching now takes place, we were having a conversation about starships. He spoke to me in a warning tone.

“I know you have competition in the starship arena, in who will be associated with Enzmann in that field. You need to secure your place in your relationship with us.”

We bantered a few words of clarification back and forth.

“Take notes,” he said.

I found some printing paper and searched for a pen. He only writes with black Micron 01 marker pens, so that is what I found. As I sat, pen ready, Dr. Enzmann explained that he wanted to solidify our place in the world’s eye as the primary party in relationship to him. He stated: ontology recapitulates phylogeny. Being used to his seeming-change-of-subject conversations, I wrote that down. He gets his rabbit trails connected eventually. Our conversation proceeded in its usual pain-in-the-butt fashion until I figured out what ontology and phylogeny were. Then came the hard stuff. His questions.

Dr.: “What is the nature of skin?”

“I know it is the biggest organ in the body.”

Dr.: “What does it do?”

After several mumbled and botched attempts at defining this, interrupted by his commentary aimed at directing my thoughts, I said, “Skin contains you?”

This must have been close enough to the right answer for him to offer an explanation.

“Good!” he said. “Skin defines you. It separates you from non-you. Self from non-self.”

Years ago, he had taught me that all humans start as a blob of skin and that the body forms on the inside of the skin, creating holes (gates) and appendages. I said as much. He must have sensed that I wondered what this had to do with starships – that was how the conversation had started.

“I am telling you this as an example of my way of thinking. Ontology recapitulates phylogeny. In other words, how a baby develops is how the evolution from lungfish to human also works. This thinking applies to how I approach starships. There was no chaos in the process; with order and method, we, Joanna and I, created the skin of the space program.”

He sat for a minute looking at me, perhaps he can see when something finally sinks in, or perhaps he just waits a random amount of time.

“I think methodically. There is an orderly development of starship technology. First, there was Mammy Ship. You know that story.”

I do, and readers will be able to know it too when it is published in the Enzmann Chronicles.

He continued, “You also know what the Orion Project was. At first, it was an unmanned space probe and had one engine. I knew that if we had four engines it could take a man! If it had eight engines, it could travel among the stars! From the Orion probe, engines added, was born the Enzmann Pulse Class starship so popularly called the Enzmann Starship. The steps to its conception were orderly. All done methodically. Chaos must become order before there can be progress.”

Another silence, this time for me to appreciate the picture he was painting.

Then he listed the starships for me, in order. There are stories in his Sci-Fi chronicles about each of these, to portray what freedom and strengths they will have. We call these stories Wagon Train to the Stars, and they take place in the Enzmann Universe. Follow them in the Enzmann Chronicles. The first ship began as a Zeppelin.

1) Mammy Ship

2) Orion Probe

3) Enzmann Starship Torch

4) Enzmann Starship Pulse

5) Micro Ship

6) Mini Ship

7) Little Ship

8) Echolance

9) Inertial engine

He wanted to be sure I knew what a starship was. He stated that by definition a starship can transit between stars and survive on a minimum landfall – the worst possible but survivable environment with a star and a moon – and it has the technology and resources so the crew can reproduce the ship.

In the Enzmann Archive are diagrams, papers, illustrations, stories, and engineering workpapers about all those ships, and more recent designs. The Enzmann Starship called the Pulse Torch has become an icon in graphic art. Online there are dozens of renderings of this ship by various artists.

FREA is researching and publishing all the material we can compile into a readable format, for the benefit of all humankind. Humanity must, as we are driven to do, explore the universe. Humans will reach our next stage in evolution when we have planted colonies on terrestrial locations and in starship city-states. Born of humans, but not Earthborn, they will evolve. Dr. Enzmann and Dr. Robert Goddard believed this will be as huge a step in our evolution as when the lungfish crawled onto land and learned to walk. It is time to leave the cradle, and it will take order and method to create the means to do so – the same order and method whereby a baby develops from skin to human.

The means of interstellar flight were developed by 1955 but never manifested. Why? Perhaps the Enzmann Archive has answers. We had been to the Moon multiple times and then the program was dismantled to the point where the USA did not even launch men into orbit. More than 50 years after the Enzmann Starship was designed, Space X launched two men to the Space Station from the United States. Perhaps we will relearn how to get more people to the Moon, then Mars. Almost all those that knew how are gone, leaving behind only their legacy – and the Enzmann Archive.

Before I said goodbye to Dr. Enzmann that day, I was taught how a shovelful of quartz sand could power a starship for a thousand years. But that is a lesson for another time.

Dr. Enzmann was gainfully employed in the Aerospace Industry for more than eight decades.

A Deep Dive into the Mighty Mind of Dr. Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Early Life

Robert Enzmann was born in China, where he attended an English school. He learned languages from age four by being exchanged to the French, Dutch, Russian, German, Chinese, and Swedish schools. His mother, Florence Goodman Enzmann, was a nurse (Johns Hopkins), and his father, Ernst von Enzmann, was a Physiologist (Ph.D. Harvard). They worked for the Peking Union Medical College when Robert was born. He had one sister.

His father, Ernst von Enzmann of Sudetenland, Austria, married Florence Goodman of Bath, ME, a Johns Hopkins graduate working under a Rockefeller program for medical nursing exchange at the Peking Union Medical College, ca. 1920. Ernst was an Austrian officer in Franz Josef’s Army. He was captured on the Eastern front during WWI and taken to a Siberian prison. After a long and arduous escape on foot from Siberia (as told in Siberian Prison, Ernst v. Enzmann) he met Florence while interpreting English for the Chinese at the Peking Union Medical College.

Robert Enzmann was born in Peking, China in November of 1924 at a time just before the electrification of the city, before the introduction of the motorcar. Life there was similar to life in the United States in the mid-1800s. By the age of four, Robert regularly attended British RAJ Embassy schools with an exchange program in French, Dutch, Russian, Chinese, and German schools, acquiring several languages. Robert learned Chinese on the streets and King’s English in the RAJ schools. The exchange program began in kindergarten.

His home teacher was in her eighties, and she had been educated in the British colonies by a lady in her eighties. The attitudes and traditions conveyed were those of the late 1700s and early 1800s. He was taught reading, writing, composition, arithmetic (emphasizing mental computation), history, astronomy, and navigationally-based geography.

Robert Enzmann has traveled from Peking to England eight times, five by the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1932 His mother decided life was too chaotic and Europe was not safe and took the family to the USA by way of a Japanese ship Mishima Maru, to Seattle, Washington, then by rail to Boston, then finally to her home in Bath, Maine.

Robert grew up in Dedham, Massachusetts. He graduated from high school in 1943, enrolled in Harvard, and enlisted in the U.S. Navy. He has four years of active combat duty in WWII, saw fourteen active combat battles, was shot down five times and had considerable radar experience. He married Joanna Muckenhoupt in 1958 while she was a student at MIT, and they have worked together for over sixty years on systems-level projects in many places and in many fields.

Dr. Enzmann’s extensive travel, education, and knowledge of languages, including work on Cuneiform, were of great benefit to his life-long efforts translating ice-age inscriptions from the Bølling warm interval in the area of Gönnersdorf, Germany. His early knowledge of Chinese in particular was influential in translating as it is a pictorial language, as is the written language of the Magdalenian culture. Dr. Enzmann’s book on written language pre-dating the Dryas II ice-age, Ice Age Language; Translation, Grammar, & Vocabulary, was published because of his life-long love of languages. These translations, read from bone, stone, and ivory artifacts for the first time, ‘add to the knowledge we already have’.

Dr. Enzmann is a recognized authority in geology and geophysics. He studied under Dr. Backlund, who, in Russia, rented the Graff Zeppelin in 1931 to make aerial photographs of the coastlines of Siberia for Stalin. Dr. Backlund was taught by Sir Aurel Stein and Erik Norin and gleaned knowledge from the Manfred Richthofen group which had mapped central Asia and China. Dr. Enzmann spent four years on foot mapping and researching southwest Africa and the Kalahari, studying the Namib, Nama, Namaqua, and Skeleton Coasts. He spent some winters working in Greenland, from Thule to the Ice Cap, Eastern Greenland, and Labrador, for radar Gap Filler.

Dr. Enzmann was a student and colleague of Charles Lindberg, Oberth, von Braun, Goddard, Taylor, Teller, Ulam, and others of those times. He has achieved degrees in engineering, geology, and medicine.

He holds an A. B. (Geologic Sciences), Harvard, 1949; B.Sc. (honors), (mineralogy and geophysics), England Standard, 1950; M. Sc. (crystallography and structural geology), Univ. of the Witwatersrand, S. Africa, 1953; Gymnasium Certificate (classics), Royal Scholarship, Swedish research, Uppsala, Sweden, 1954; Ph.D. (polycrystalline solids and diffusion phenomena), Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Research at the Royal Institute of Uppsala, Sweden, 1957, Ph.D./M.D. Cuidad, Juarez, Mexico, 1980.

His geological field experience includes Africa, Greenland, Asia, and Sweden. He taught physics and math at BU, MIT, and South Africa. He is fluent in many languages including English, Chinese, German, and French. He can also read several ancient languages.

Dr. Enzmann is a member of the American Geophysical Union; AIAA; Geological Society of America; Fellow of the NY Academy of Sciences, Assoc. of American Physics Teachers, Founding member of N. E. Cryonics Society, American Institute of Aero and Astronautics, American Rocket Society, American Physics Society, the American Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, the Geological Society of South Africa, the Swedish Geological Society, and the German Geological Society.

After the war, he circumnavigated the globe in his yacht and researched several ‘interesting’ ports.

Higher Education

1949 BA; BSc, (geological sciences) Harvard University

1950 B.Sc. England Standard (mineralogy and geophysics) Honors

1953 MSc (crystallography and structural geology), Witwatersrand University, So. Africa

1954 Gymnasium Certificate (in classics) Uppsala, Sweden

1957 Ph.D. (polycrystalline solids and diffusion phenomena) Research at Royal University, Uppsala, Sweden Royal Grant with coursework National Science Foundation scholarship to Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Several certificates from Navy Classes.

USN electronic service schools (associates equiv.)

Partial completion of S. Africa Mine Managers Certificate.

Recent experience in National Guard Infantry and Field

Dr. Enzmann was multi-lingual. Languages included English, French, and other Latin languages, Chinese, Afrikaans, Dutch, Arabic, German, and other Germanic languages, as well as many ancient languages.

Dr. Enzmann had lifelong Secret Clearance level.


Then Sweat, Tears, and Blood

I asked Bob one day, “aside from natural interest and curiosity, what and who interested, motivated, and finally impelled your interest in starships?”

He said, “It’s easy to recall the gloriously colored Boston Sunday Advertiser illustrations of cylinders landing on the moon and the short imaginative stories with them. In Germany, the movie Frau im Mon, the fantastic stories in the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, and especially Max Planck come to mind.  I played with his two granddaughters, daughters of his twins. We heard him talk about the power locked in atoms, it all came back to me when Hiroshima then Nagasaki were blasted. I knew immediately that mankind possessed the power that will carry any descendants to the stars.

On a second visit with Max Planck as my mother fled from madhouse Europe and my paternal relative’s malfeasant ill will toward my mother, I played and listened. Father (being extracted from Europe by threats of “come or we leave without you”) talked at length with Dr. Planck. Here I gained knowledge of Knut Gödel, who was briefly my father’s classmate. Here I gained a feeling from the senseless waste of talent by Nazi Excesses. Imagine Planck’s son was executed by the Nazis.

In America, inspiration and motivation by Ula, Teller, Bethe, Ted Taylor, Jalbert, Jerry Bull, Murphy of ABFreed Artillery Range), Robert Bussard, and Verner von Braun along with his team at Huntsville, Alabama, were essentially it!”

Work Summary

Technical work through the 1940s started with a hardware item, the Western Union Splice, the field maintenance plus systems installations of aircraft and airport avionics including power grounding, lighting, ILS (instrument landing systems), GCA (ground control approach), MAD (magnetic air detection of ships and subs), and radar-controlled antiaircraft with proximity fuzes.

During the 1950s, he surveyed, appraised, and negotiated for mineral concessions on the African continent. He worked at geophysical exploration, siting, planning, and installations, including chemical processing plants, mineral beneficiation plants, and waterworks foundations. He worked on Pine-Tree-Line, Gap-Filler-Radars, SAGE, ATLAS-IBM system design, DEW-line, BMEWS system integration, and TRADEX-PRESS integration.

Through the 1960s, he worked on modeling and simulating interface, communications, command and control packages for current projects. Supported parts of very large proposals. Had sole responsibility for many smaller proposals, several of which developed into large efforts, working in-house and with potential customers to discover system needs, and develop systems specifications. He formalized these as competitive proposals, often by developing knowledgeable cooperation of other companies’ joint efforts. Government negotiations concerning aerospace contracts ranging from $100,000 values-studies to 2.4-billion-dollar efforts involving scientific, legal, and diplomatic matters.


Concurrent with my work as a geologist-geophysicist and later as an electrical engineer, he taught one to three evenings a week. The teaching included courses I gave in French for the Algerian Government, Northeastern University U.S.A, about eight years, Ann Arbor Michigan, Boston University, high schools(talks), and primary schools ranging from mining camps to American Embassy schools.

Geology Geophysics

Ranged from pick and shovel work and core logging to fieldwork in N. America, the Arctic, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, Greenland, Scandinavia, and all parts of Africa. Worked at exploration, mapping, site testing and appraisal, acquisition of regional concessions from governments (50 miles x 100 miles), to building towns and plants. Wrote articles in the field and booklets.

Bob was hired by Boliden – the largest mining company in Sweden – to investigate a possible mining claim in Africa. He knew the country, spoke the native languages, and had a degree from Witwatersrand University. He was perfect for the assignment.

Straniky and a communist Swede had sold a bill of goods to Boliden, but they looked the part and were well-equipped for a safari. They took an immediate dislike to Bob.

They went to Mozambique; the Swede, Straniky, and the Austrian were royally pissed off. It escalated when they discovered that Bob could speak a mixture of Spanish and Portuguese, and they couldn’t understand anything that was being said. When they arrived at their first accommodations, Bob had a sinus fever. The Swede tried to convince everyone that it was the plague, and they should make him stay in the yard overnight to die, so as not to infect everyone else. He was told to go to hell.

When Bob saw the prospective mine, he was told by the owner that it only had about 2K$ more in profitable asbestos in it. He was curious as to why so many people with so much equipment had arrived for such a small mine. Why would a big company even care about such a place? This confirmed Bob’s suspicions that Straniky was pulling off a huge con. Then he overheard them talking about getting rid of him.

The Austrian said Bob knew what he was doing. The Swede said that if they hit him in the shoulder or knee, he wouldn’t live long. Then they could throw his corps into the crocodile-infested water. The Austrian objected strongly, stating that he was a Catholic and would not go along with outright murder.

Nothing happened right away. As they loaded up the Jeep to make the next leg of the trip, Bob noticed the Swede in the back had a rifle, finger on the trigger. Straniky was driving, taunting Bob about the rutted road and the hair-trigger on the rifle. Accidents happen, he said.

Bob found an opportunity to jump out of the Jeep and disappear into the brush before they could stop the Jeep. They probably figured he would die out there. Bob had many allies in Africa, a place he had spent a lot of time and money learning the native ways. Eventually, he found a village where he was known, and they took him to an airstrip where he found a flight to Rhodesia.

Who says being a geologist is boring.

Electrical Engineering

Work in electrical engineering ranged from repair of cables and radios for the Navy tax through elementary design, system specification, site location, installation, integration, and operation of such major systems as Pine Tree Line (radars), DEW (distant Early Warning Line), Arctic Gap Filler (all phases), BMEWS (ballistic Missile Early Warning System), SAM-D, ANTI-ABM, High Power Laser Systems, and Satellite Communications Systems. Worked at proposal preparation, procurement, and project financing, and concurrent at organizing conferences.


Includes first aid and gross anatomy, particularly neurology, physiology, and biology. Geological work in paleontology is very helpful, as a background for ontology recapitulates phylogeny. It is the fossils that demonstrate phylogeny! Experience with the microscope as a user and instructor exceeds that of most people. Includes use of polarizers, reflectors, darkfield, 5-rind Fedorov Stage, Integrating Stage, Hot-Cold, Vacuum-pressure or special gas stages, and micromanipulation. Prepared both biological slides with various staining techniques and the more difficult petrological thin sections and electron microscope specimens. Worked with electron microprobes.

Deeper Still into the Life of a Mighty Mind

1942-45: Dr. Enzmann served in the USNAC with an Honorable Discharge and was decorated for active duty in Europe and North Africa. He served in the Atlantic Assn RAF, Pacific. He installed, maintained, and tested direction finders, and worked LORAN (Long Range Navigation), airborne radars, radar-gun sighting, IFF, IL-System, magnetic air detection, and ground controlled-systems. He also served as a cryptographer.

1943-1946 Active duty in WW II. USN. Enlisted man, fleet air arm, aviation electronics, avionics, radar.

Worked in communications, air traffic control, radar (surface then aircraft), then finally the largest electronic system of the day, G.C.A. (Ground Controlled Approach).

Installed, maintained, tested, and occasionally operated automatic direction finders, and communication equipment. LORAN devices, airborne radars, radar gun sighting, IFF devices, ILS-System, Magnetic Air Detection, SONAR devices, Ground Controlled System.

1946-1948 Attended Harvard University

1946 to 1957: He served on various USAF Survey Teams and solo assignments. He performed geophysical and regional surveys in Namaqualand, Mozambique, Kenya, the Rhodesias, Africa, Greenland, Mediterranean Basin, Antarctica, Europe, North America, and the Pacific. His work covered magnetic, self-potential, pulse, and seismic work on the Gap-Filler.

1948-1958 Performed geophysical and regional surveys in Greenland, Africa, S. E Asia, Labrador, Mediterranean, Europe, North America, Middle East, and India – geophysical, electromagnetic, and mineral plant surveys and installations. Work covered magnetic self-potential, pulse, and seismic work on the Gap-Filler.

U.S. Armed Forces in field assignments including Greenland ranging from Thule to the Ice Cap and Eastern Greenland.

Spent one winter with a small group in Eastern Greenland.

Central and South Africa mining and exploration projects; Labrador for radar Gap Filler, DEW-line end Pine Tree Lines; Middle East, Mediterranean Basin; Asia.

Planned exploration profiles and logistics for teams reaching distant points using a pyramid technique with perhaps 500 men at base and 2 to 12 in the final party, often worked as ‘point man.’

Planning had to be changed continually; unfortunately, this was before the days of PERT and critical path analyses. War was spent with GCA (Ground Controlled Approach), ILS, MAD (Magnetic Air Detection), airport and aircraft carrier ground, and airborne equipment. Ref: C.W. Wolfe, R. Fogel

1949 Engineer at Climax Molybdenum Co, Climax, Co.

1950-1953 Teaching assistant in physics and basic electrical engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa.


Republic of South Africa

  1. W. Africa



  1. Rhodesia


  1. Rhodesia (Zambia) Angola

Congo (Belgium Congo)

Namaqualand and Namaland

1950 to 1955: Dr. Enzmann was a teaching assistant in physics and basic electrical engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa while surveying and mapping the continent’s Skeleton Coast. From 1954 to 1955 he earned his Ph.D.

1954-1955 Teaching assistant in optical crystallography at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

1954 Spring









1955 Spring/Summer

















1955 Winter


1956 Summer





Decades of opportunity working with modern equipment have emphasized the value of using careful thought and diagnosis. Over 50% of the most serious work with the microscope was with a toy microscope in Africa. Much of the chemical analysis was with a blowpipe, charcoal, and very few re-agents rather than a well-equipped wet lab or a magnificent instrument like an electron probe.

1950-1957 Orbicular Norites, Charnockites, and Calc-granulites of the Kheis geosyncline in S. Africa. Thesis advisors Dr. Backlund of Uppsala, Sweden (before WW I of St Petersburg, Russian Empire) and Dr. Norin, Uppsala, Sweden. The research was carried out over some years over several visits to Africa. Twenty-two thousand square miles were mapped. The rocks were perfectly exposed in the deserts of Cape Province, SW Africa, and what was formerly known as Bechuanaland. Enzmann found seventy-six orbicular bodies in the area. They were often mineralized with the unlikely combination of bornite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. The silicates were occasionally comprised of this unlikely combination of quartz, hypersthene, anorthite, and mafic alteration products.

He discovered what metasedimentary beds these bodies were in and mapped the entire geosyncline (where exposed), including several mining districts. The mining data may not be published (if you look at O’Keip Copper on the American Exchange and the dividend rate it pays, you will see why certain reports are not published). Trips were made at his expense and on various aircraft and other means of conveyance to Corsica, Espoo Finland, Buffalo Hump, Idaho, Norway, and Japan to look at other orbicular bodies. He did Petro fabric studies on all these samples.

Geology is the anatomy of the Earth. Enzmann wanted to see the Earth and had to find a means of travel. Namaqualand and the Diamond Coast of Africa was an amazing schoolbook. Only on such a desert, in very recently glaciated polar regions, can crystalline geology be seen.

1950-1961 Geomorphology of Coral Atolls. Enzmann personally financed research in the Marshall Islands while working there on the analysis of electromagnetic signatures of missiles. This was one of those interesting studies that no one wants to finance – supporting data from observations along the Great Barrier Reef in East Africa, the Bahamas, and the South Indian Peninsula.

1957 Eastern Greenland, the paradise of the Arctic, while working on other projects, he had time to collect data on sastrugi in the snow and on the patterned ground or polygonal ground. Published a theory as to how polygonal ground could have formed in trans Iowa Academy of Sciences and published observations of ice platters, which were not seen anywhere else in the literature. These are obscure subjects indeed, but they are beautiful and somewhat relaxing to consider.

1957-1958 consultant to RCA on automatic checkout of Atlas missiles and programming of an automatic programmed checkout unit system.

1957 to 1962: Dr. Enzmann taught a series of courses at Northeastern University on Radar Systems and Aerospace Weapons Systems. He was with RCA as a senior electrical engineer engaged in warhead/decoy discrimination, radar cross-section research, and computations for ICBM intercept by anti-ICBMs, plans for observing nuclear explosions, system integration of ICBM tracking radar on the Pacific Missile Range, the instal­lation, system integration, and testing of BMEWS Site-II, Clear, Alaska. From 1958 to 1962 he was a Consultant to RCA on the automatic checkout of Atlas missiles and the programming of an Automatic Programmed Checkout Equipment system (APChE), and Tandem IBM 7090 radar control.

1958 Dr. Enzmann married Joanna Muckenhoupt. They had six children.

1958-1962 Boston University, Assistant Professor in geophysics and geology.

With R.C.A. at various locations, including BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System at Clear Alaska).

Engaged in warhead decoy discrimination, radar cross-section research, computations of ICBM intercept by anti-ICBMs, plans for observing nuclear explosions, system integration of ICBM tracking radar on the Pacific Missile Range, and the installation system integration and testing of BMEWS Site II, Clear, Alaska.

Scheduled installation of equipment, organized tests of interfaces, rescheduled when shipments were delayed or accelerated, and assigned manpower accordingly. Made use of PERT Critical-Path, LOBE methods, and common sense.

Worked directly for systems integration manager (Shannon); had use of two IBM 7090s.

Similar projects and a position with Atlas Missile Project, FPS-16, TRADEX-PRESS, the Hard site construction. Ref: R. Shannon.

1958-1959 Automation of Countdown of Atlas Weapons System at Convair Astronautics and as a consultant at RCA with Meyer Cooke (Convair boss) and Wm. William Pease, RCA; Designed a method of automating the programming of automatic checkout which reduced nine man-weeks of work to two hours. Enzmann’s logic diagrams were made mandatory on all internal diagrams used for the ATLAS System at Convair Astronautics.

1958-63 at Boston University, Dr. Enzmann was an Assistant Professor in geophysics and geology. He was a teaching assistant in Optical Crystallography at MIT. Dr. Enzmann worked as a design specialist at Convair Astronautics and worked on the system integration of Atlas sites. He engineered the design specifications for the automation of Atlas ICBM tests and countdowns. He also represented Convair to RCA, Burlington, Mass., on Atlas ICBM affairs.

He worked as an Engineer at the Climax Molybdenum Mining Co., Climax, Colorado, O/Okiep Copper Co. Nababeep, South Africa, and Minerals, Ltd., South Africa.

1959 Design specialist at Convair Astronautics working on system integration of Atlas sites.

Represented Convair to RCA, Burlington, MA on Atlas ICBM affairs.

1960 Researched Morphology of the Arctic Aurora at Radar Frequencies. At Clear Alaska, under Robert Shannon, Systems Integration of BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System). Enzmann was a systems integration engineer for fourteen months on-site, seven days a week. When the radar system was built, he took the opportunity to run some special programs. He manipulated the multi-megawatt beams to examine the structure of the aurora. As the amount of information was too great to process, he prepared a program on our tandem 7090 computers to print out in three dimensions the auroral patterns. At some point in the future, this material may be publishable. He also engaged in extracurricular activities by using the weapons systems to searchlight Venus and see if it rotated or had continental bulges and used the receivers to study noises from the sun. BMEWS was fascinating as a defense system and also as a research tool.

1960-1972: As a Fellow with the New York Academy of Sciences, he presided as Conference Chairman and Consulting Editor for three NYAC symposiums on Planetology, and Space Mission Planning: the first in 1965 with Krafft Arnold Ehricke, Dandridge Cole, and Wernher von Braun in New York City, also in 1968 and 1972. The conferences are on permanent record in the NYAC.

1962-1965 Assn Prof. EE. Univ, Michigan

Kwajalein Atoll TRADEX-press

BMEWS Alaska

Convair assigned to RCA

Avco mission planning, scheduling by computer, techniques for scheduling logistics and instrument usages, processes, and process control, have some publications from here on automatic checkout and mission planning. Ref: C. Nordstrom, Jack Cohen, Admiral Schanze.

Unmanned and manned geological and geophysical experiments in solar space, Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter environments.

Voyager flights, ionospheric studios, solid-state chemistry of hot-pressed oxides.

1962-1965: As senior staff-scientist, Projects Staff, Applications Department, and Research Directorate at Avco RAD, Dr. Enzmann led a study of unmanned and manned geological and geophysical experiments in solar space, and in Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter environments; integration of experiments for Mars and Venus Voyager flights, ionospheric studies, and solid-state chemistry of hot-pressed oxides.

In 1963 at the radiation laboratory of the University of Michigan, Dr. Enzmann was a senior electrical engineer working on the theory and initial design of systems for the discrimination of stationary ground targets by their electromagnetic signatures.

1963 at the Radiation Laboratory of the University of Michigan, Assistant professor of Electrical Engineering, working on the theory and initial design of systems to discriminate stationary ground targets by their electromagnetic signatures. Worked on theory and initial design for the system for discrimination of stationary ground targets by their electromagnetic signatures. Environmental effects on radar propagation.


1963 July, much of the research under the inspired encouragement of the NYAS, some of the work done at AVCO (reference Mr. Carl Nordstrom, Avco, Wilmington MA, or Mr. Hovnanian, now with NASA Headquarters Washington Biosciences). Planetology and Space Mission Planning conferences were organized on his time, funds, and inspiration. The New York Academy published the first conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning papers; 11,000 copies, 800 or more pages. The theme is this: We spend technology (rockets, cameras, instruments, even men) in alien or terrestrial environments, which are only parametrically understood. The objective is to gain information and optimize the spending technology to gain a maximum quantity of significant information. Please see Instrument Contour Diagram. (Enzmann organized the second and third conferences under the auspices of the NYAS). There is no committee. Enzmann was chairman and general organizer.

Organized a conference concerning the use of Unmanned and Manned Space Systems for Planetary Geology and Geophysics May 25-27, Prudential Center, Hilton Hotel, Boston, under the American Astronautical Society. Enzmann was the general chairman and organizer, wrote all letters and made all phone calls, and did editing from his home. This resulted in a hardcover monograph. The conference was devoted to considering and furthering a general system of planetology and a general system of signature theory which he devised some years ago and first presented at the NYAS. The system was used in AVCO’s Scientific Volume of their Voyager Proposal. Enzmann personally wrote 90% of this volume and did all but two of the illustrations. (Each illustration bears his initials or name). A limited edition of the scientific volumes of the AVCO proposal (400 copies, special run) graciously acknowledged his part in this effort.

1965-1974 Missile Systems Division of Raytheon Company.

Worked in the fields of EM Propagation, Weather, Terrain and Oceanic Radar environments, radome materials, and survivability, and the areas of optical, infrared, and ultraviolet seeker, tracker, and destruction systems.

Raytheon communications, mission planning, logistics optimization, taught some courses that included life cycle planning, wrote some publications, traffic and flow state-space analysis, and geophysical and environmental analyses.

Was working chairman of several international conferences- saw to the comfort and travel of international guests and handled formal invitations to them and informal correspondence. Ref: Arthur Ohlsten, Jack Cohen, Freeman Goode.

1966 July Raytheon Missiles Division, Bedford, MA until retirement. Clutter, Interference, and Noise Effects on Electromagnetic Detection Systems. Asked by the chief engineer of the division to write a book for internal use which may be published outside later. Monostatic and Simple Bistatic Case: There is a moving target, a moving receiver, and a fixed illuminator is treated. Prepared equations for returns from one coastal plain, hilly regions (old lands), subdued mountains (usually of granulite facies and exposed by secondary uplift), and rugged mountains. The equations indicate the average shadowing that can be expected for each province. Returns are computed for Lambert (scattered) returns and Fresnel (specular or optical) returns. The equations are then modified for four basic vegetative covers: dry, normal, and wet conditions. And finally, above or below freezing conditions. Inverse Fourier transforms are used to compute the power spectrum.

Interference is treated as amplitude, frequency, and the first two derivatives of roll, pitch, yaw, epicycling moments (Dutch Roll), and movements in the X, Y, Z directions of the receiver.

Noise is treated as natural or manmade radiation from entities not activated by the illuminator.

Enzmann brought together the radar equation, designed some simple divergence equations, and used the simpler equations occasionally used by geomorphologists to describe geomorphic provinces.

Space Science and Aerospace Weapons Systems

A curriculum taught by Dr. Enzmann for Raytheon Missile Systems

The outline below indicates the scope of course 1500 offered this fall under the Systems Theory and Engineering section of the State-of-the-Art Courses at Northeastern University.

This is a two-part course; each half, however, is an entity in itself so that the courses may be taken in sequence or separately. The course is devoted to electronic systems operating in real environments.


Within the limits set by military security, the role of physical and combat environments as influenced by economics and sociological conditions on the design, development, and uses of aerospace weapon systems are discussed. An atlas and numerous case histories will be supplied.

Course Content:

Physical environments

Interplanetary space and planetary space divided into zones as follows: cis-planetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithospheres, biospheres, and endospheres.

System considerations

Detection methods, interception, shelters and fortification, and offensive weapons.

Synthesis of systems with the environment

Continental and intercontinental defense operations, use of terrestrial space for defense operations, and extended military use of interplanetary space defense operations.


Dr. Enzmann made a major contribution to rocketry and National Defense in 1959-1960 by inventing a technique now used throughout the world. It is not mentioned or written about in any journal, science magazine, or public media since 1961. Perhaps they don’t know it exists or what it does, or why it is fundamentally important. (See: Automatic Programmed Checkout Equipment in Missiles & Space, 1961, published in ENDEAVOR 1)

Today, in 2019 only a few old baby boomers remember radio shops; usually one-man enterprises. You could take the tubes in your radio to him, and he would check them. You could buy replacements for the weak or burned-out tubes. Sometimes you brought the whole radio for troubleshooting. Most radios had five to a dozen tube devices, and around each tube were coils, fixed condensers, and fixed resisters. A transformer antenna connection, a dial-turned capacitor or coil to change the stations, and a dial-turned resister to change the volume, also needed maintenance.

The repair man worked through the radio step by step: the antenna, where the radio wave came into the speaker, where voice and music audio modulating the radio waves came out of the speaker, and voice, music, and sound effects. This was the super-heterodyne radio. They were invented by Armstrong during WW I while he was in action in France. It was outright stolen by Sarnov and used to establish the multimillion-dollar company RCA.

Armstrong later invented the FM (Frequency Modulated) radio receiver free of AM-Radio static. A great success! Yet the great FM was buried, as AM was placed in every radio and TV manufactured in the US. It is speculated Sarnov drove Armstrong to suicide.

ATLAS – the first US Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

Intellectual illuminates like Jerome Wisner of MIT – who wrote consensus-science volumes to ‘help uninformed government officials make science-based decisions – demonstrated that atom bombs are too large to be carried in a rocket and that there is no possible way of guiding a missile or a rocket to another point on Earth.

Dr. Stark Draper, for whom Joanna and Robert Enzmann worked at times, invented and built guidance systems, and, it is alleged, was promptly driven out of MIT. He then founded Draper Labs. The ATLAS rocket, a bubble of thin stainless steel invented by an engineer and scientist of Danish extraction, was, with tremendous political uproar and shrill relentless media opposition, forced through to production after the Russian Sputnik launch.

It was mostly WW II veterans in America that built and successfully launched ATLAS. This was no super-heterodyne radio nor a radar – this was a monster. Pre-launch and on-the-pad countdown to launch involved checkout of millions of components. How did they do it? Dr. Enzmann describes it for us:

“Together, unplanned, it just very suddenly happened. It started, grew, and grew. A human pyramid of hundreds, with thousands supporting, building, and delivering rocket after rocket to the launch pads. Yes, pads in parallel streams. If one or more humans fail, another or a number fills the ranks.

On the front line, one man watches one component or a group in a sub-subunit watch. If all is ok, he presses the green buttons to signal sub-unit line two that all is ok. Unit third-line operator, when all’s green, signals the unit operator. Over the peak of the pyramid, six Tigers signaled up to three Tigers and they to Tiger number one.

Above the Tigers 1, 2, & 3, there was a tree of little lights, one for each man in the great countdown pyramid. Ignite and start the takeoff was counted off in seconds from the last ten levels – 10, 9, 8, 7, down to 1. How often we would almost make it and have to start all over again.

I recall our first success. Not far from the top, someone put on music sung in a Danny Kay little girl duet:

You push the first valve down

and the music goes round,

then you push the next valve down

and the music keeps on round and round…

…and this time 6,7,8,9, 10. And it (the music) comes out here on count 10. Ignition! The concrete bunker shudders as the ATLAS engine ignites. The Pyramid cheers then almost chants: Go go go Go GO BABY GO GO GO! And success! We have done it – America has done it!”

Yes, Dr. Enzmann was one of the multitudes in several of the Pyramids. He also collected check-out data and got to thinking there could be a much easier way to do this. He was part of the APChE (Automatic Programmed Checkout Equipment), itself a pyramid of men in groups of perhaps twenty each, with a 1960 IBM 1060 computer. Here is what happened:

1) Each point in the pyramid was described in grammatically correct English. Dr. Enzmann did much of this.

2) He knew language can be translated into Boolean binary code.

3) He also knew that binary code can be plotted into sequenced steps of a Western-Union Ladder Diagram – not all that useful as those mere hundreds of ladders crisscross each other in a colossal ‘bundle of weeds’ of logics.

4) Working seven-day weeks, twelve-hour days, but well paid, Dr. Enzmann and Joanna found a way to sort the enormous adaptive permissive-progress sequence into a Sparse Matrix.

So clear and simple are their matrices that anyone in minutes can understand the enormous system.

This system of countdown pre-launch checks is used on every missile and rocket that launches today around the globe. It is time for credit and recognition to be given to the man who changed the face of technology and missile defense. With this innovation, it is now possible to use vehicles that launch from Earth into space for travel, business, exploration, and colonization.

This is but one of the many achievements of Dr. Enzmann. Here we have included a bio and resume of sorts: His accomplishments in multiple fields and disciplines are indeed mind-boggling.

1974-1975 Algerian Government for PTT (Post Telephone Telegraph) Ref: Mr. Jelloulie. Used French language.

Dr. Enzmann retired from Raytheon and kept working on his planetology and space mission planning. He wrote volumes. He designed viable starships for interstellar travel. He wrote hundreds of sci-fi stories and scenes to depict what life would be like in a spacefaring community.

He passed away in 2020 and entrusted his tremendous archive to FREA for publication.


Publications and Public Records

Congressional Record, June 6, 1966, A3028 by Senator Stuart Symington. Vol .140 and Vol. 163. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1966 & 1969. NYAS, N. Y.

Fellow of New York Academy of Science,

20-year member of American Association of Petroleum Geologists

American Geophysical Union, 1950

American Rocket Society, 1961

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1961

Geological Societies of America, S. Africa, Sweden, Germany 1953

American Society of Physics Teachers, 1949

Listed in Who’s Who in America, American Men of Science, and the British Blue Book

Foreign Experience

Africa, three years continuous and two later expeditions. Greenland, one year. Scandinavia, one year. Kwajalein Atoll, one year. Early youth, Peking and Manchurian regions of China.

Encyclopedia Articles

Enzmann, R. D. 1968. Definition of General Signature Theory. Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1968. Electromagnetic Signature: optical image and scattered domains (scatter matrix) expanded to general signature theory in n-dimensional information ­vector space. Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1968. Expanded Theory of Geomorphology.  pp 40 – 409. Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: N. Y.

Enzmann, R.D. 1968. Signature Theory. pp 993 to 994. Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1968. Instrument Contour Diagrams. pp 559 to 560.  Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1972. Molybdenum: The Element and its Geochemistry. pp 753- 758. Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences. Ed. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Reinhold: Columbia.

Interlinear Books

Bonini B., & Enzmann, R.D. 1976 proof:  Terms for T.V., Voice, and Telegraph Communications via Satellites/1. An interlinear dictionary and manual in classical Arabic, French, and English for Algeria and the Middle East.

  1. D. Enzmann with Professor M. Mhadi, 1975. Algeria and the Grand Mosque of Tunis translated children’s stories – Classical Arabic/Phonetic-English (Koranic as taught on TV in Algeria), becoming a government requirement under their Total Arabization Program.

Miss Moppet Beatrix Potter, Alice in Wonderland Lewis Carrol, The Wild Swans H. C. Andersen, Rumpelstiltskin Grimm Brothers, Little Red Riding Hood Grimm Br., A Tale from the Orient, A Day of Happiness Pearl Buck, The Gingerbread Boy, Snow White, I am Sophie, Hansel and Gretel, Grimm Br., Jack & the Beanstalk, The Tin Soldier


Enzmann, R. D., et al., 1963. Voyager Design Studies. Volume II, 241 pages. Organizer and Director NASA Contract Ns NASW 697. (A plan for the geological, geophysical, and biological exploration of Mars while avoiding the biological contamination of the environment – being carried out with Mariner equipment in 1976)

Enzmann, R. D. Editor and Gen. Conf. Chm. 1966, Dec. l6. Planetology and Space Mission Planning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 140, 683 pp. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N.Y.

Enzmann, R.D., Editor Gen. Chm. Meeting. 1967, 22 to 27 May. Vol. 17, 605 pp. Use of Space Systems for Planetary Geology and Geophysics. American Astronautical Soc., Science and Technology Series. Tarzana: CA.

Enzmann, R.D. Editor and Gen. Conf. Chm. 1969. Second Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. l63, Art. l, pp. 1-588.  N.Y. Academy of Sciences: N.Y.

Enzmann, R. D., Jan. 1970. 120 pages. Weather Clutter Study. For U. S. Army, Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. No. DA-A-H01-67-C1995. (Global Weather represented as five types: Tropical, Temperate, Polar, Monsoonal, Hurricane, adapted for presentation on telephone modems on real-time basis.)

Enzmann, R. D., Editor and Gen. Conf. Chm. 1972. Third Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 187, pp. 1-4-59. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N.Y.


Enzmann, R. D. 1949 Distribution of Molybdenite Mineralization at Climax. Climax Co.

Enzmann, R. D. 1953. Wolfram Mineralization in Namaqualand, Copper Mineralization in Namaqualand, Thorium Deposition of the Van Rhynsdorp Area. O’Keip Co

Enzmann, R. D. 1954. The Genesis of Orbicular Bodies. Witwatersrand University.

Enzmann, R. D. 1954. Orbicular Rocks of Namaqualand, West Africa: The Regional Structure, Geochemistry and Crystal Chemistry of Orbicular Charnockites.  72 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1956. Crystalline Rocks of the Kheis Geosynclinal System. Thesis, Kon. Univ of Uppsala, Sweden.

Enzmann, R. D. 1958. Formation of Ice Platters in Labrador. pp 27-276. Proceedings of the Trans-Iowa Academy of Sciences. TIAS: Iowa.

Enzmann, R. D. 1958. Propulsion, Guidance, LOX, He, LN2, Test Package for the ATLAS-ICBM System. Convair Astronautics.

Enzmann, R. D. 1958. World Research of Beryllium. Beryllium Co.

Enzmann, R. D. 1958. The Genesis of Pegmatites. Vol. 65, pp. 299-310. Proceedings of the Trans-Iowa Academy of Sciences. TIAS: Iowa.

Enzmann, R. D. 1958. The Formation of Ice Platters. Vol. 65, pp. 274-277. Proceedings of the Trans-Iowa Academy of Sciences. TIAS: Iowa.

Enzmann, R. D. 1959. BMEWS Interface, System, Environmental, Performance, and ECM-ECCM Test Packages. RCA Service Co Rep.

Enzmann, R. D, 1960. Morphology of Frost Polygons as Related to Ground Slopes in Eastern Greenland. pp 357 to 361. Proceedings of the Trans-Iowa Academy of Sciences. TIAS: Iowa.

Enzmann, R. D. 1960 Transfer Functions of Sensor Systems and their Operational Environments. Current at Raytheon Missiles Division, Bedford Ma. Classified, but it may be said that it reduces certain systems to sets of transfer functions and may have broader application.

Enzmann, R. D. 1960. Automation of Checkout Procedures. Missiles & Space, May 1961.

Enzmann, R. D. 1960. Morphology of Frost Polygons as Related to Ground Slope in Eastern Greenland. Vol. 67. Pp. 357-361. Proceedings of the Trans-Iowa Academy of Sciences. TIAS: Iowa.

Enzmann, R. D. 1961. Automatic Programmed Checkout Units (APChE) for Use with Atlas System. Missiles and Space.

Enzmann, R. D. 1961. Test Plans and Directives for Observing Distant Nuclear Explosions and Recording Probable Environmental Effects. Direction of search radar to points on predicted trajectories of ICBMs.

Enzmann, R. D. 1962. Correction of Search Radar Azimuths for Deviations of North Star Correction of Range Errors as a Function of S/N, Clutter, Polarization, Band-Pass. Rep. RCA Service Co.

Enzmann, R. D. 1962. Identification of Ground Vehicles to Ranges of 18.6 miles. Rep. University of Michigan.

Enzmann, R. D. 1963. Aspects of Radio Astronomy. 200 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1964. Systematic Exploration of Planetary Environments. American Geophysical Union, National Academy of Sciences.

Enzmann, R. D. 1964. Orbicular Bodies of Namaqualand, S. W. Africa. American Geophysical Union, National Academy of Sciences.

Enzmann, R. D. 1964-1965. Aerospace Weapon Systems. 150 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1965. General Signature Analysis and Sensor-Effector Loop Optimization. Unclassified.

Enzmann, R. D. 1965. Planetology and Space Mission Planning. 500 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1966. Space Mission Planning in Planetary Environments. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 140, pp. 592-627. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1969. Aspects of Signature Theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 163, pp.100 -112. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1969. Unmanned Exploration of Planetary Surfaces. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 163, pp 387-395. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N. Y. (See: By Kurt Waldheim, Sec. Gen. United Nations, Vol. 163, N.Y. Academy, 1969)

Enzmann, R. D. & Enzmann J. M. 1972. Cosmological Aspects of Order, Relevance, and Information Theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. I87, pp. 10 to 50. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D., Girard. 1972. Thermodynamics and Morphological Orders: A Generalized Concept of Information Transfer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 187, pp 51 to 68. N. Y Academy of Sciences: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. 1972. General Signature Theory and Resolution With 3, 4, and N-Dimensional Ambiguity Functions in Signal Processors. Limited circulation.

Enzmann, J. M., Enzmann, R. D. 1973. Nov. 5 to 9. Designs for Reflective Optics in Fusion Systems. Am. Nuclear Soc. 5th Symposium on Engineering Problems of Fusion Research. Princeton University, Princeton Plasma Laboratories. U. S. Atomic Energy Comm., I.E.E.E.

Enzmann, R. D., Enzmann, J. M. 1974. Fusion Through Reflective Optics. 2 to 5 April. 2nd European Electro-Optics Conference. Montreux, Switzerland, Session XII.

Enzmann, R. D. & Enzmann J. M. 1974. April, Stellar Net (transfer) Red Shift Relativistic Losses; Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 55, No A, 55th Annual Meeting No 5830.

Enzmann, J. M. & Enzmann, R. D. 1974. June 10th to 13th. Simulation of Stellar Cores in Terrestrial Laboratories. VIII International Quantum Electronics Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Enzmann, R. D., Section Chairman. 1974. 9 to 11 July.  Houston, Texas.  Group V. Environmental Sciences. Global (Terrain, Atmospheric, Vegetation, and Soil) Representations. A paper and computer program for print-out with remote telephone modems.

Enzmann, R D. 1975. Sept. Information-Space and Energy-Space Representations of Sahara and Kalahari Grass Colonies.  Interdisciplinary Aspects of General Systems Theory. 3rd Annual Meeting of Society for General Systems Research. Lister Hall, DC.

Enzmann, R. D., Enzmann, A. N. 1975. Sept. Geometric Space Representations of Grass Colonies. 3rd Annual Meeting of Society for General Systems Theory.

Enzmann, J. M. & Enzmann, R. D. 1975. Reflective Optic Systems for Lasers. pp 346 to 357; Conference on Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Confinements of Plasmas and the Phenomenology of Relativistic Electron Beams. N. Y. Academy of Sciences: N. Y.

Enzmann, R. D. & Enzmann, J. M. 1975. Comparison of Optics for Laser-Induced Thermonuclear Fusion. Optical Society of America, Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C.


Enzmann, R. D. 1958. APChE – Automatic Programmed Checkout Master Manual for Automatic Checkout and Launch of Atlas. Series Intercontinental Rockets (later expanded for use with Saturn Series). 2000 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1959-1960. BMEWS – Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, System Integration, Automatic Checkout, and Performance Testing. 6000 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1962. TRADEX-PRESS – Pacific Range Electro-Magnetic Signature Studies, System Integration, Performance, and Signature Studies

Cover Feature

Analog: Science Fiction, Science Fact. Enzmann, R. D. and Sternbach, R. 1973. Ed. G. Harry Stine. Oct. Color cover depicting a painting by R. Sternbach and R. D. Enzmann of the Enzmann Torch Class starship.  Article by H. Stine, pp. 14-15. A Program for Starflight. Dell: N.Y.

Optical Spectra, Magazine of Optical Electromagnetic and Laser Technology. Enzmann, R. D. & Davis D. 1974. May.  Colored cover showing a painting by Don Davis and R. D. Enzmann of a Pulsar Star and Laser Fusion at Livermore. Optical Spectra: Pittsfield Mass.


Worlds of If. Hoagland, R., Enzmann, R. D. 1974. Torch Ships Now. Interview, two issues August & Sept. Worlds of If: N. Y.


Enzmann. R. D. 1951. Report on Tin, Tungsten, Uranium, and other Acidic Mineralizations. 150 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1952. Report on Iron, Titanium, and Other Minerals of Recent and Fossil Beaches of East Africa. 120 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1952. Influence of pH, Temperature, Depth, and cations on fixation of Elements by Bacteria in Geosynclinal Structures (Emphasis on copper, including red beds, bedded sulfides, porphyry, metasediments, metasedimentary anorthosites, and lopolithic anorthosites. 280 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1953. Terminal Corundum-

Sillimanite and Pegmatite Mineralization in Geosynclines. 200 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1954. Water, An African Mineral Resource. Highland Run-Off, Rivers, the Continental Margins, Artesian and Fossil Aquifers, the Great Depressions, Limestones, Storage in unused mines, Dew-Wet Outs-Air Wells. 50 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1956. Lead, Zinc, and Molybdenum Mineralization in Eastern Greenland. 22 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1956. Asbestos and Other Long-Silicate Mineralization of The Great African Rift Valleys, and Marginal Rifts. 50 pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1959. Iron and Sulfur Fixation in Peat Bogs on Post Glacial Tillite Terrain. Eight pages.

Enzmann, R. D. 1970. Celestial Mechanics and Ice Ages of Pleistocene.  Carboniferous, -250(106), Cambrian -500(106), Ego Cambrian -750(106), Nama-Numbers -(109), Lakes -1.25(109) & 1.5(109), Svionian & Witwatersrand -200(109), Swaziland -3.0?(109)years. Related to Galactic rotation and Bobbing of Sun through Galactic Plane. 25 pages.


  • Greenland Gap-filler
  • Parachuted to and wintered in East Greenland sub-sites
  • Camp Century Ice-Core dating
  • Canada Distance Early Warning (DEW)-line
  • Gap-filler
  • Pinetree Line
  • White Alice
  • Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE)
  • Pacific Radar: Pacific Range Electromagnetic Signature Study (PRESS)
  • California ATLAS-POLARIS,
  • Chief Engineer and Head of Systems Integration
  • Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS)
  • Designed and implemented APChE (automatic program checkout) for the first U.S. Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), a sparse-matrix countdown system used internationally on all missile systems today
  • Kwajalein Atoll ICBM intercept
  • Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiment (TRADEX)
  • Mars Viking
  • Voyager I & II


  • Chain-home England ATC
  • IFF
  • DAQ
  • ILS
  • Prox-fuzes
  • AA-autotrack
  • GCA-system
  • AZON (ir. bomb)
  • GLOM (TV bomb)
  • Early MAD (Lakehurst mag. air detection) Pacific Ocean seismic tripartite
  • SOFAR (sub. com. sys)

Personal Publications

Enzmann Chronicles – Robert Duncan-Enzmann

ENDEAVOR – Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Vera Child Prodigy, Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Ice Age Language; Translations, Grammar, & Vocabulary, Robert Duncan-Enzmann & J R Snyder

Flight of the Summerbird, Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Verity’s Dragon, Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Enzmann Echolance Reach for the Stars, Robert Duncan-Enzmann

Professional Publications & Papers

Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, vol 67, article 46, 1960: Morphology of Frost Polygons as Related to Ground Slope in Eastern Greenland

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers, Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight, 1960

Aspects of War and Aerospace Weapons Systems, and Systematic Planetology, Northeastern University 1960

Missiles & Space, Automatic Programmed Checkout Equipment, May 1961

Editor Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, vol 140, 1966. Papers:

  • Introduction to the Section on Environments
  • Introduction to the Section on Signatures
  • Introduction to the Section on Technology
  • Introduction to the Section on Space Mission Planning
  • Space Mission Planning
  • Space Mission Planning in Planetary Environments

The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Vol III: Expanded Theory of Geomorphology, Rhodes Fairbridge, 1968

Editor Use of Space Systems for Planetary Geology and Geophysics. Science and Technology Series, American Astronautical Society, vol 17, 1968

Editor Second Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, vol 163, 1969


  • Preface
  • Introduction to the Section on Environments
  • Aspects of Signature Theory
  • Introduction to the Section on Technology
  • Introduction to the Section on Space Mission Planning
  • Discussion Paper: Unmanned Exploration of Planetary Surfaces

Editor Third Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, vol 187, 1972. Papers:

  • Cosmological Aspects of Order, Relevance, and Information Theory
  • Thermodynamics and Morphological Orders: A Generalized Concept of Information Transfer.
  • Introduction Remarks to Session II

Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Confinement of Plasmas and the Phenomenology of Relativistic Electron Beams, Relativistic Optics Systems for Lasers, with J. M. Enzmann, vol 251, 1975

Referenced in Publications

Who’s Who in America, 37th ed., Vol. 1,

  1. 934, 1972-1973

Analog, G. Harry Stine, December 1972

The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction,

Isaac Asimov, July 1973

Worlds of IF, (R)evolution; Torch ships Now, R D Enzmann and Richard Hoagland, Aug. 1974, Sept-Oct. 1974

Optical Spectra, cover painting by Don Davis and R D Enzmann, Hyperion stars/gravity lens; mention page 3, May 1974

Astronomy, Slow Boat to Centauri, Thomas R Schroeder, August 1977

Messages from the Stars: Communication and Contact with Extraterrestrial Life, Ian Ridpath, 1978

Sky Above and Worlds Beyond, Judith Herbst, Atheneum, 1983

Science Digest, Journey to the Stars, Rick Sternbach, May 1983.

Sky and Telescope, Cover, the Enzmann Torch, by Rick Sternbach, February 1986

Boskone XXIII, Cover, Torch Ship, Eggleton, February 1986

Centauri Dreams, Paul Gilster, 2004

Deep Space Propulsion: A Roadmap to Interstellar Flight, K. F. Long, 2012

Hypothetical Spacecraft and Interstellar Travel, Ezekiel Nygren, 2015