Image shown – Avebury Stones 2500 BC
5900 – 3750 BC
The warm Atlantic I, II, III, and IV Grand Climate Optimum era. Global temperatures during this time were considerably warmer than today. Humankind makes great strides in warm, comfortable weather. This was the golden age for humanity to explore. A great intercontinental utility of megalithic observatories for agriculture and navigation was constructed over millennia. With this utility, the megalithic mariners sailed the oceans around the world and measured the circumference of the Earth.
6000 – 5900 BC
Cochran 100-year glaciation is triggered by the Hudson Bay Slush-Out, the enormous lakes breaking through the glacial dam flood the North Atlantic with icebergs. It raises global sea level such that the English Channel and expansion of the North Sea flood the northern plains. Dogger Banks are first islands, then submerged. The 5600 BC flooding of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea all occur over a few hundred years.
In 6000 BC, there are evidences of pre-LBK and early LBK Atlantic Ia Old European writing, seemingly a combination of symbols and phonetics sequenced linearly.
5900 – 5600 BC
Atlantic 1a as identified by Danish pollen zone VIIa.
Immediate pre-LBK and early LBK Silviculture is evidenced by abnormally great quantities of local hazel pollen. Hazel is a common second-growth in fire-glades, created by burning-out forests during dry seasons. Hazel nuts are an excellent starchy food. It suggests fire-glade Silviculture, along with planting nuts in the cleared land, was practiced early as the Solutrean.
5795 – 5600 BC
5600 – 5500 BC
Ostend I Cold Drought ends Atlantic I. Ostend Ib: Mount Manaza Volcano, North America, detonates, leaving Crater Lake. Inter-Atlantic I / II cold drought glacial expansion. This is possibly due to Hudson Bay Slush-Out dust storms.
5600 – 4500 BC
LBK Linear band ceramic (Linear Ware)
culture of BC Atlantic II centuries is the first widespread Neolithic culture of Temperate Europe. Its origins are the small farms of 5900 BC Atlantic I.
LBK Linear Ware Culture, 5000 BC
LBK villages were sited on loess-lands they raised: wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T.aestivum, T.spelta); barley (Hordeum vulgare]) millet (Panicum miliaceum); rye (Secale cereal); oats (Avena sativa); flax (Linum usitatissimum), peas (Pisum sativum); grass peas (Lathrus sativus); lentils (Lens culinaris); poppies (Papaver setigerum and somniferum- in the eastern areas) hemp (cannabis); cherries (Prunus and Cornus mas); acorns; hazelnuts; hay, and silage for winter feed fodder.
LBK houses were 60 to 150 feet long. Animals were kept in the northerly side, people lived in the sunnier southern side. Dogs and cats were kept, snakes were encouraged, as were barn owls. Dogs warn of animals and strangers. The other creatures control rodents, which consume and befoul stored grains, nuts, and acorns. Sheep, goats, geese, ducks, pigs, cattle and horses were kept.
Wild animals hunted included: red deer, roe deer, swine, wild horses, rabbits, beavers, hamsters, and occasionally bear, wolf, and foxes. Illumination was with oil lamps. Textiles included linens, wool, and linsey-woolsey which was popular in the United States in remote areas until the early 1900s.
LBK settlements were often ditched and occasionally palisaded. Certainly, cattle rustling would have occurred.
LBK people and culture are likely ancestral to Europe’s Indo-Germanic Celtic and Nordic populations. When measurements of mitochondria of SRY genetics and other such factors are made, this evidence, together with physical anthropology, will finally identify the Indo-Germanic Celts, its Nordics, and the general Indo-European homeland.
Germany’s LBK Linear band ceramic (Linear Ware) culture of 5600 to 4500 Atlantic Ii centuries, is the first civilization known to have constructed a large central observatory, then, with observations made there, expand a continent-wide Neolithic utility. 4700 to 4300: STK Observatory, descended directly from Atlantic I, 5796 to 5600.
Proto Goseck Site Observatory Germany
5500 – 5200 BC
Pre-Cucuteni II Sites: Bernashevka and Okopi
Brzesc Site Poland
5370 – 3970 BC
Dnieper-Donetz II Culture Nikol’skoe
5300 – 4300 BC
Goseck Site Observatory Germany (origin of megalith yard & continental-European salt lines). This sequence manifested ca 5000 BC. Observation: Stellar motion changes with azimuth. They correct this when building observatories by drawing the proper ellipse.
Gimbutas considers 6000 to 5300 the Early Phase of Old European Script, and 5300 to 4000 the Climactic Phase of Old European Script. I suggest dates of 5500 to 4200 instead, suggesting the LBK culture was literary, and knowledge of writing was widespread. 
5260 – 5000 BC
5200 – 4550 BC
Tripolye A Sites Sabatinovka I, Luka-Vrublevetskaya, Grenovka
Brodgar Ring Site & Skara Brae Site. Earliest settlers’ wooden posts and Neo-stones. Goseck Observatory, Germany. Agricultural utility.
Goseck Observatory, Germany, 5000 BC
1) the continent-wide standard megalith yard’s origin discovered by Alexander Thom
2) 366-degree megalith circle
3) definition of a temporal second
4) definition of a megalith arc second
5) measured number of sidereal days (number of times the Earth turns about its axis) in a year as 366.2564
6) measured number of mean solar days (number of sunrises) in a year.
It certainly seems that Alan Butler has demonstrated that knowledge to be very important to navigators. Which sidereal day it is, is easily found with the Phaistos disc. 
Use of pendulums to measure motion of the celestial sphere, then translating this into standard measures of distance, time, weights, and volumes is lucidly described in Uriel’s Machine.
The LBK agriculturalists at Goseck and Carnac and associated observatories were conceived and started during Atlantic I, fully operational during Atlantic II, then during Atlantic II and Atlantic III must have originated the measurements 1 to 6 listed above, brilliantly expanded on by the Grooved-Ware agricultural and world-ocean voyaging culture at Newgrange and Bryn Celli Ddu.
Without observations 1 to 6 the mariner’s observatories such as Newgrange, Bryn Celli Ddu, etc. could not have been built.
To engineer navigators’ observatories, knowledge of how to number:
1- solar years
2- sidereal years
3- lunar years and planetary motions are necessary.
We may reasonably suggest that this was done at the Goseck observatory. An excellent technique for doing this is suggested by the 2200 BC Minoan Phaistos Disc.
Observation Longitude may be accurately measured using Venus and even the moon or Mercury as clocks; however, to do this the navigator must know exactly what day of the sidereal year it is. It’s easy to lose count. How may this be done with comfortable accuracy? Commensurable counts must be available. The Phaistos Disc’s spiraled sides certainly seem planned to easily reference, and accurately know the sidereal day of the year.
The Phaistos disc was made 1000 to 2200 BC, but it must be based on sciences formulated between 5900 to 4200 BC.
Phaistos Disc, 1000-2000 BC
Its brilliant calendric identification of sidereal day amidst mean solar days is a routine, while the many symbols detail cargo preparation, storage, nature of cargos, harvest, fabrication, and shipping times, which are not routine.
Count 123 symbols on side A. Relate to proper symbol on side B. Repeat for 2nd symbol on side A. Relate to side B and repeat 123 counts on A for 119 symbols on B. It’s a total of 14,637 days. This totals 40 years of 366 days. Three dots indicate one day be subtracted every 402 days, keeping solar and sidereal calendars coincident for about 3000 years.
The Phaistos Disc addresses not only navigation, but commerce on Crete such as weaving, and metallurgy prepared for its maritime trade. Phaistos is in southern Crete not far from Port Avaris. Avaris in Egypt was likely founded 3500 –3100 BC by bad-weather-impelled Megalith mariners from the Baltic, North Sea, and Atlantic. They, as Pelasgians, likely built both Avaris and Crete, then Avaris, Egypt, as trading centers with Egypt’s Nilot civilization, which was unified 3100 BC as it emerged from centuries of war with drought-impelled Semites arriving from the Arabian Peninsula.
Phaistos Crete was a metallurgical center, textile traders center, and foodstuffs market. Avaris, during the Hyksos-Hebrew occupation ending with Ramses III Hyksos wars, then Exodus expelling Jews, remained the major Eastern Mediterranean trade center and a complex of fortifications, from which Egyptians were dominated and ruled.
4700 – 4300 BC
Atlantic II Germany’s LBK Linear band Ceramic (Linear Ware) culture of 5600 to 4500 BC Atlantic II Centuries was the first civilization known to have constructed a large central observatory, then, with observations made there, expand a continent-wide Neolithic utility.
STK Observatory, descended directly from Atlantic I (5796 to 5600).
Inter-Atlantic III / IV, Kurgan II
Phonetic Scripts chart:
Left-to-right: 1, 2 Phoenician, 3, 4 Iberique, 5, 6 Greek, 7 Roman, 8, 9 Iberian, 10, Old-Iberian, derived from 5500 to 4200 BC Old European phonetic script. Last column: Primitive Old Celt Iberian deriving from Old European phonetic script widely used on megaliths.
Pre-Dynastic Egyptian Hieratic Script seems to derive from Old European phonetic writing, and in turn, author Julio Cjador indicates that the Sumerian cuneiform script of 3200 BC derives almost entirely from the Egyptian Hieratic phonetic symbols. 
Nebra Disc, Goseck, Germany Saxon Anhalt State Museum of Prehistory 2002 publicized the recovery of the Nebra, enameled gold and silver, and inlaid bronze disc from looters found it at a site about 20 km from the 4750 BC observatory at Goseck.
Translation of the Nebra Disc: An astronomical instrument showing the sun, a lunar crescent, Pleiades, and two golden arcs marking the angle between solstices.
 A Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, UK.
 A large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada.
 A large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 kilometers (62 mi) off the east coast of England.
Ref. Civilization of the Goddess, World of Old Europe, M. Gimbutas, J. K. Marler, Ed. 1991. London: Thames &I Hudson
Ref.: April Scientific America, Peter Bogucki & Ryszard Grygiel: Early Farmers of the North European Plain, 1981
The distinctive banded decoration found on pottery vessels on sites spread throughout central Europe,
from south-western Ukraine and Moldova in the east to the Paris Basin in the west.
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of farming appeared in the Epi-Paleolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
Ref: Scientific America, Dec. 2003, Schlosser, Wolfhard, Bochum, Germany.
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture also known as the Tripolye culture in Russia, 4000 to 3500 BC.
Russian name of the modern town from which the Bernashivka settlement derives its name.
A 15,000-year-old site in Ukraine.
Ref.: Scientific America, April 1983, Peter Bogucki & Ryszard Grygiel, Early Farmers of the North European Plain
Mesolithic culture in the area north of the Black Sea & Sea of Azov bordering the European Neolithic area.
An area of Russia
Ref.: Language of the Goddess, Unearthing Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization, M. Gimbutas, 1989, London: Thames & Hudson.
Ref.: 6,500 to 3,500 BC Goddesses & Gods of Old Europe, Myths and Cult Images, M. Gimbutas, 1981, London: Thames & Hudson.
An archaeological site located in the village of the same name in Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukraine.
Bronze age mega settlements in Ukraine
Late Neolithic early Bronze age stone ring in Orkney
Neolithic village on the coast in Scotland.
 Ref.: 1955, Jrnl. Royal Statistical Soc., A 118-275-9, A. Thom. Statistical exam of British Megalith Sites
Ref.:1978, Megalith Remains in Britain and Britany, A. Thom, Oxford.
Ref: 1999, Uriel’s Machine, Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, Gloucester, MA, Fair Winds
An exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites in Brittany in northwestern France.
The Atlantic Grand Climate Optimum ranged from 5900 to 3700 BC.
A pottery style of the British Neolithic
A prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey
A 5000-year-old Passage Tomb in the Boyne Valley
Ref.: The Bronze Age Computer Disc, 1999, Alan Butler, London: Quantum.
Ref. Civilization One, 2004, Christopher Knight & Alan Butler. London: Watkins. Ref. Earth Chronicles Expeditions, Journeys to the Mythical Past, 2004, Zechariah Sitchin, Rochester, VT: Bear & Co.
Largest Island in Greece
Was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos.
Early inhabitants of Greece and the eastern islands of the Mediterranean
Stroke-ornamented ware culture
Ref. Scientific America, Schlosser, Wolfhard, Germany: Ruhr Univ. Bochum, Dec. 2003
Ref.: 1039 Julio Cjador, Alphabet et Inscriptions Ibériques, Epoque du renne pyreneen, Paris, Paul Catin ed.
Also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45, are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky