Linguistic Timeline

Aspects of Prehistory

Dr. Robert Duncan-Enzmann

An excerpt from Enzmann’s Linguistic Reference for Aspects of Pre-History.

Climate affects life on Earth. Human migration plays a big part in the development and spreading of language. This chronology is part of a support document for the linguistics manuscript in the Enzmann Archive. The manuscript is thousands of pages, developed as Dr. Enzmann translated ice age inscriptions and programmed AI computers.

*Important recurring abbreviations are PIE and IE = Proto-Indo-European and Indo-European.

Climatological Ages, Dates, and Events BC

50,000 Ice Age 36, bitter cold, Würm II glaciation

Europe: Neanderthal/Sapiens race war

37,000-32,000 Hengelo-Denecamp, warm

Europe: Neanderthal is finally exterminated

Hengelo Denecamp Caucasoid population expansions in Australia, S. America: Brazil and Chile, Cro Magnon in Europe

32,000-20,000 Ice Age 37, bitter cold, Würm III glaciation

Subdivisions: Aurignacian Arcy I, II, les Eyzies, Tursac, Pataud/Paudorf, Noallian, Perigordian, Gardena A, B, Sundadonts in E. India, use boats along E. Pacific coast

20,000-16,000 Solutrean, mild to warm

Early Solutrean, Parpello, Laugerie Haut, glaciation

Middle Solutrean, glaciation

Late Solutrean

16,000 Ice Age 38, bitter cold, Würm IV glaciation

Warm and cold oscillations are the climatological stage in which the Magdalenian Cro Magnon developed. The cold intervals include: the Vistulian/Dordogne oscillations, Weichselian glaciation, Würm/Wisconsin glaciation

15,800 Dust storms, cold and dry

15,600 Glaciation

15,000 Lascaux, mild to cold

14,500 Raunis, thaw, mild to cold

14,000 Buhl, glaciation

13,000 Meindorf thaw, mild to cold, Dryas I, glaciation

Nostratic Europe – proto-Jomon Caucasian from Europe to Central Asia, E. Siberia, found Jomon, Japan

Caucasoid migration from S. E. Asia mingles with Caucasians from Europe in Central Asia

Nostratic Europe – migrations due to glaciation

Amerind migration of Athabascans over Beringia Land Bridge into N. America.

  1. America Athabascan migration from Siberia

Tuareg migration to North Africa may date from this time. They are Caucasoid/Caucasian, yet by genetic drift have black skin. At this time the gigantic Würm-IV Sahara Desert has started to shrink but only very locally at the very edges.

Jomon peoples produced ceramics in Japan. These people are Caucasoid immigrants from Siberia.

12,500 Bölling, mild

Warm weather population expansion

PIE Nostratic Europe

Proto Swiderian-Kunda Culture

PIE Nostratic Central Asia Swiderian-Kunda colonize and expands in Central Asia.

Caucasus proto-Kartvelians ancestors of Alans, Avars, Georgians

Northern Siberia proto-Ural-Altaic populations follow megafauna northward

Central Siberia proto-Indo-Europeans adapt to prairie hunting then herding with a large population expansion

Oriental Sunderland (Hither Asia)

Tuareg PIE to North Africa from Europe. Later Hamites then Berbers will migrate from Europe to North Africa.

Guanche populations may have been in N. W. Morocco when the gigantically expanded Würm-II Sahara Desert commenced contracting. Some may have wandered to the Ahaggar and Tibesti.

Proto-Semites of Tuareg, Hamitic descent consolidate in Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia

Note that not only did the Caucasoid substrate-PIE Nostratic Jomons of Japan make pottery as early as 13,000 BC; but there is also extensive evidence for pottery manufacture in what is now the Sahara by ancestors of the Hamites, Tuaregs, Guanches, Berbers and proto-Semites

Hebrew genotype S. W. Ethiopia

Negrito Equatorial Desert Belt

Hottentot Southernmost Rift Valley Structure

Bushman from S. Ethiopia southward

11,000-10,000 Dryas II, glaciation

Migrations due to glaciation

PIE (Siberians) to N. America with migrations to peripheral Eurasia and Oceania

Athabascan (from Siberia to N. America)

Jomon (established during Bolling in Japan)

PIE proto-Indonesians to SE Asia and Sunderland

Indonesians, IE from Central Asia

PIE (proto-Munda) to Indian Peninsula

Munda (small northern population enters India)

PIE proto Guanches and late-Hamites from Europe to N. Africa

Hamites from Iberia to N. Africa

PIE (proto-Anatolians) into northern Arabia


Proto-Semites to Yemen (Arabia Felix)

The roots of these people are Nostratic or substrate PIE, we note that the population of Ethiopia was fair-haired and blue-eyed until swept over by the Negroid expansion out of the Congo starting about 5900 BC when it changed from savannah to forest, then jungle.

Split Europeans who colonize uninhabited Central Asia undergo population expansion during the Bolling. With onset of Dryas III c. 8900 glaciation a few will survive by adapting to Arctic conditions, many die, and many others migrate. The linguistic group splits:

  1. America Athabascans, Japan Jomons, to Indonesia, to Malaya/Burma becoming Munda and entering India, Palestine, and Hamites from Iberia to N. Africa

10,000 Allerød, mild

Warm weather splitting of populations due to migrations

Swiderian-Kunda culture of Germany, Poland, Baltic, Russia to Urals, Caspian, Aral, Balkhash and Altai-Baikal regions. These are robust, tall, lanky, neonate Proto Indo-Europeans

PIE population of Central Asia Splits and with proto-Ural-Altaic follow megafauna to Northernmost Siberia

Pre and PIE become savannah and prairie hunters in Central Asia’s now well-watered lake lands which extend from the Ukraine to Manchuria.

PIE populations in Anatolia, Iranian Highlands, Zagros Foothills. It is likely that these peoples spoke Basque-like languages as proto-Sumerians (in Iran) proto-Elamites (in the Zagros), proto Hattic (in Anatolia)

PIE Central Asia population expansion of Early Indo Europeans in Eurasia old Caucasoid (Ainu) migration into Eastern Asia

PIE (Hamite and Guanche) in N. Africa

Oriental Sunderland (Hither Asia) is sinking beneath rising oceanic levels.

Proto Chinese migration Sunderland (Hither Asia) to southernmost coastal China.

Oriental Sunderland (Hither Asia) sinking with migration along still exposed continental shelves to Africa, the oriental genetics is seen in Hottentots and even Bantu populations as seen in the Transkei Xosas.

Split Europeans: the second wave of Europeans who colonize almost uninhabited Central Asia both expand their population and mingle with survivors of the first migration, but it’s a vast area and they settle in different regions. Proto Indo-Europeans hunt and commence herding the prairie and savannah animals. Proto Sumero-Aryo-Iranians herd and farm about the Caspian, Aral, and Iranian Plateau. Proto Ural Altaics follow the megafauna northward.

There is a split: proto-Hamites who seem to have migrated from Europe into North Africa during Dryas II (11,000) about now expand. They live in the prairie, savannah and lake lands that will exist after contraction of the long-lasting glacial era Sahara, and before expansion of the post glacial era Sahara.

Proto-Semites derived from early settlers in northern Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Cyrenaica who settled across the Central Sahara land of lakes, and freshet rivers mingle with Mediterranean genotypes. These peoples then dominate the Sudan-Ethiopia-Somalia region and migrate to Yemen. Yemen will become the central ecumene of all Semitic peoples.

Proto-Hebrew genotype probably in Southwest Ethiopia in the vast river valleys at the headwaters of the Blue Nile. At this time, it is teeming with game and rich in edible vegetation. This is a very old genotype with genetic traits distinctly different from other peoples who speak Semitic languages.

8900-8300 Dryas III, glaciation

Dryas III is a lengthy, dry, bitterly cold glacial episode. Glaciation migrations to peripheral Eurasia, there is extensive splitting of populations and languages.

The Europeans migrate to better climates including North America’s Clovis, Old Malayan and Old Burmese fair-haired Caucasians, Proto-Indo European Munda migrations from S. E. Asia to the Ganges and Central India, proto-Sumerians from Iranian Highlands to Northern India, Caucasians to Palestine, and Iberians to North Africa. In addition, oceanic migrations from the Italian Peninsula to N. Africa occurred.

Clovis, Folsom from Eastern Siberia to N. America

Proto-Athabascan to North America

Old Burmese, old Malayan IE migration from Central Asia

Proto-Munda small northern population enters India

Proto Sumerian from Iranian Plateau to Northern India

PIE from Caucasus, Anatolia to Palestine

Proto Guanche from Iberia to N. Africa

Proto-Hebrew Genotype migrates to N. E. Yemen and East Central Coast of the Arabian Peninsula. They adopt the Semitic Language which is widespread in both Southern Arabia and N. E. Africa. The Congo Basin is largely forest and unlivable. Jungle is beginning to displace forests. Negroes are just beginning the driving of Hebrew genotypes, proto-Semites, Hottentots, Bushmen, and the Tuareg-Hamitic-Guanche genotypes from Ethiopia. The Negro genotypes do mingle with the remaining populations and also adopt the Semitic languages used throughout the region.

8300-7200 pre-Boreal, mild

Baden-Wurttemberg Culture, Saarland (obsidian), Senckenberg, Brandenburg Culture, Weidentalhoehle Rhineland-Pfalz, grades eastward into Weidentalhoehle Rhineland-Splitting of the pure-Nordic genotype from other closely related PIE and Indo-European genotypes begins in the pre-Boreal. Ancestors of the Celts, for example, are located further to the east in areas from perhaps the eastern Ukraine to Manchuria.

PIE population expansion in Central Eurasia begins

Tuareg, Hamite, Guanche population expansion in N. Africa begins with shrinking of deserts.

Slovakia & Anatolia

7800-7500 Inter-Boreal Northwest wind drought followed by Mesolithic cold drought.

Caspian migration from N. Africa to Iberia to Dacia (Romania), Bulgaria, Ukraine Central Europe migration from Mediterranean Littoral by gracile population.

7200-6000 Boreal I, II, III, warm, Neolithic forest catastrophe

Seroglazova Culture, Dniester-Bug, mid Volga Agidel, Balkans old European, Herder Farmers, Mediterranean Littoral Farmers rapid I.E. population expansion in Central Eurasia including North European Plain and its extensions divide the Basque-like languages.

Woodworking tools are the epitome of the Neolithic. The two most important are the axe and the saw. The axe is both polished and has a haft hole bored into it. Other tools do not need to be polished.

Ceramics are developed in Greece, the Balkans, and Southern France.

The temperate climatological vortex expands, summers in Europe are longer and wetter and enormous birch and evergreen forests expand over Western Europe. Food is scarce in such forests. It will be abundant again when the oak forests replace evergreens. Populations move toward lakesides, banks of streams, dryer regions of the Ukraine, and from the North European Plain toward the coast.

The Pure Nordic Genotype evolves as an adaptation to rainy summer and winter skies and overcast winter skies. Pure Nordics do not freckle, freckles always indicate Celtic genes.

Basque population expansion in Iberia, France, Caucasus

Ural-Altaic population in northerly Siberia expands

75 acre (30 hectares) fortified Jericho oasis

Bohemia old European substrate language

Iberia proto-Basque related to old European substrate

Cochran glaciation

IE migrations to peripheral Eurasia. This is a brief but very cold dry glaciation. Drought verging on desertification prevails over Central Asia, the Sahara, and Arabian Peninsula.

Proto-Berber migration from Iberia to N Africa, expansion to savanna has and prairies.

Proto-Alute migration into N. America from E. Asia by sea

Proto-Semitic migration from Ethiopia/Sudan/Somalia to Yemen, which is better watered and somewhat warmer. The proto-Arabic population develops in Yemen-Oman as a mixture of Tuareg, Hamite, Guanche, and Berber, intermarried with ancient Mediterranean Genotypes with whom the intermarriage and building of a civilization was peaceful and cooperative.

5900-5060 Atlantic, warm, the Grand Climate Optimum I

LBK (Linear Band Ware pottery) Culture Germany and Central Europe, old-Europe Balkans, Dnieper-Donets Culture, Sursko-Dnieper and extensions across Central Asia. This is the beginning of the grand climate optimum with population rapidly expanding as farming and herding economies boom. Old Europe’s farms are in western loess lands and the black earth regions. Cattle and horse herders range from the Andronovo corridor’s extension into Hungary eastward almost to the Pacific.

Both populations are closely related but with Indo-European dialects spoken amidst the herders, and Old European (called the substrate language) spoken among the Atlantic Megalith builders and seafarers. The Basque languages of Iberia, Rhaetia, and the Caucasus are separated from closely related Ural-Altaic speaking populations of Northern Siberia.

Hamitic Egypt restoration of the Ethiopian Monsoon and its extremely high rainfall during the early Atlantic washes out the Nile Valley forming a single channel. North Africa is still a land of savannah, prairies, and lakes, however as it dries out, the Nile will continue to flow due to the Ethiopian Monsoon.

It is during the Atlantic that the Nile River channel is flushed out by the huge annual floods pouring out of the Ethiopian mountains. Prior to this Egypt has been a land of braided stream-channels anastomosed about the landscape. Egypt is a hydrological creation of the Atlantic Era monsoonal rains. It must be said: “without the Nile narrowly channeled between river terraces, there’s no Egypt.”

Hamitic Nile = azure, or azure-blue stream

Nordic, Nostratic Europe, the Coreland and ultimate fountainhead of all civilizations, now thrives under ideal climatic conditions, growing seasons are sufficiently long for three crops, short winters have at least a few weeks of frost and light snow which kills off insect pests. Under the prevailing Westerlies rainfall rates are ideal. Under cloudy skies the ash-blonde, blue eyed, genotypes without freckles develop. Darker-skinned people die off because of rickets.

Ural-Altaic populations of Northernmost Siberia totally shift from hunting megafauna and reduce their dependence on caribou, reindeer, and musk oxen shifting largely to a forest economy. In post-Atlantic times there will be something of a shift back to tundra creatures: caribou, reindeer, and musk oxen etc. There can be no return to a megafaunal economy as the cold prairies do not exist. Tundra vegetation is somewhat toxic to megafaunal species.

Nostratic/Proto-Indo-European (PIE) Asia is rich pastureland, savannah, and prairie. All populations expand.

5400-5060 Ostend I, cool and dry, Inter-Atlantic I

Ostend cold drought farming was practiced about the Iranian Plateau. It is in Atlantic I that irrigation was done with covered kishlak ditches which developed into the qanats. Unfortunately, neither adequate rainfall nor soils like Russia’s black earth, N. America’s, W. Europe’s, or China’s loess lands exist about the Iranian Plateau.

Old Europe substrate, Mediterraneans migrate northward

Earliest Indo-Germanic developing among herders, farmers

Earliest Sumerian, Iranian Plateau, W. Zagros herder, farmers

Proto Ural-Altaic

Proto Kartvelian splits ca. 3500BC; Georgian, Avar, Chechen, Lezghi, and Alan, Circassian

5060-4740 Atlantic II, warm, Grand Climate Optimum II

Proto Indo European Rakushechny-Yar Culture from Bug to Urals and extending into Central Asia. In Central Europe and Balkans old Europe plowing with oxen further raises yields of Western European farmlands. Large megalithic observatories are now built in Central Europe to improve agriculture.

Proto-Coptic would have a proto-Indo European or Nostratic root. The grammar would not be Semitic. Semitic grammar was imposed on the peoples of the Nile Valley around 4200 BC during and after Kurgan-I, Semitic-I.

Semitic expansion of population from Yemen Ecumene into Arabia which during the Atlantic Climate Optimum is under the expanded temperate climatic circulation. Rain is sufficient to change the bitter dry uninhabitable desert into savannah and prairie teeming with game.

Hebrew genotype speaking a Semitic language settle in West Central Arabia, somewhat inland. It is a highly strategic location for an ecumene. They tend not to intermarry or otherwise mix with Arabic populations except as traders.

5000-4700 Ostend II, cool and dry cold drought, Inter-Atlantic II

Old European substrate

Proto Indo Germanic develops Atlantic I and II among herders of central Asia, along Andronovo Corridor to W. Europe

Proto Sumerian on W. uplands of Zagros toward Tigris

4700-4000 PIE Atlantic III, warm, Grand Climate Optimum III

In Mackinder’s geopolitical thesis the World is divided into Central Eurasian Heartland, surrounded by Rimland such as S. E. Asia, India, Arabia, Africa, Western Europe, and then islands including Australia, N. and S. America etc. To this is added Coreland centered about Central Europe and the Baltic.

The Coreland is the source of World civilization. It was loosely united during the Atlantic era culminating in Megalithic culture. Engaged in several thousand years of Mediterranean wars with the Hittite-Greek-Roman Littoral Empire with all Indo Europeans engaged in perpetual at war with Phoenicians, Jews, and the Carthaginian Sephardim. The Coreland was almost united by a Germanic Holy Roman Empire but stopped by the 16218-1648 Thirty Years War. The Coreland was almost united by Napoleon, then Germany 1914-1918, again Germany 1939-1945 but frustrated by the Second Thirty Years War 1914-1945. Currently, a Franco-German-Italo-Iberian European Common Market is well on the way to unification.

The peoples of the core land are blessed with abundant resources, excellent agricultural lands, excellent family values including educational traditions, splendid waterways and river systems. This is the most densely populated region of the Earth. Currently, N. America’s USA is the only superpower, however, this Island (Mackinder) power lacks the resources of a United Europe. Shortly – and without war or even other savage conflict and destructive competition- Europe will be the superpower. The shift will be peaceful though occasionally acrimonious, as was the shift from Rome to Byzantine.

Great effort was, is, and will be expended in every way possible and conceivable to prevent any such unity. However artfully done by the disloyal opposition the advantages are so overwhelming that application of the Destructive Principle cannot this time succeed, short of annihilation that cannot be advantageous to any variety of Sapiens Sapiens.

Nostratic Peoples inhabit the Coreland this is essentially Western Europe. It includes the Greater North European Plain extending from Cantabria, along the Atlantic Coast, through the Baltic and on to the Urals. It includes the central Rhone-Rhine-Danube waterways. The Mediterranean-Black Sea-Caspian is its southern boundary. Their population is expanding, the economy is agricultural, trade in commodities, stones, metals, amber, ceramics, hides, honey, and textiles

Late Nostratic peoples are represented by Sumerians, Elamites, Hattic, Basques. Proto Indo Europeans of the global central Asian heartland have undergone division into:

North West – Proto IE Germanic, Baltic, Latin, Slavic

Central – Proto IE Albanian, Hittite, Celtic, Greek

Southern – Proto IE Aryans ancestors of Persians, Indians

Tripoli culture in Pontic Russia and Balkans Central Europe plowing with horses, and especially the horse collar, further raises productivity of European farms. Indo-Germanic development in part with Surfski Dnieper-Donets and extensions eastward

4400-4000 Frosnitz, Kurgan I, cool and dry cold sub-glacial drought, Inter-Atlantic III

Germanic nations were located in Western Europe well before the Celts arrived. During Kurgan-I migration, starting at least as early as Atlantic-III ca. 4700 BC seems to have increased. At this time the Germanic peoples had already formed dialects and languages dividing them into the early Western and Northern Groups and the much later Eastern Group.

Kurgan-I marks the westward migration of Indo-Germanic peoples westward and mingling with closely related populations of Central Europe, the Baltic, Scandinavia and the Balkans. From the amalgamation of Proto-Indo-Germanic and the substrate language the following languages develop: Old High German, Old Saxon, Old Swabian, Gothic, Visigothic, Crimean (Ostrogothic), Old Frisian and later Frisian, Old English, Icelandic, Mercian mid-English, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, and today’s global lingua-Franca, American English.

Kurgan-I, is synchronous with Aryan-I, with Semitic-I, and Negro-I and all of these migrations are driven by weather.

Anatolia: Hittite, Luwian, Lycian Palaic

Old substrate: Balkans and N. European Plains

Iberian Basque-like PIE-substrate, Tartessa, N. E. Spain

Northern proto-Indo-Germanic migrate westward to Baltic Central Europe

Proto-Indo Baltic migrate somewhat later

Proto Indo-Latin migrate westward

Proto Indo-Slavic are south of the Ural-Altaics

Proto Ural-Altaics are the northernmost Eurasian populations from Urals to N. E. Siberia

Sumerian first lower Mesopotamian settlers

Northwest Mediterranean Africa is largely inhabited by peoples of Berber ethnology and genotype. The Berbers probably migrated from Europe during the Cochran around 600 0BC. Widely distributed, though keeping in contact across the open prairie and already spreading deserts, proto languages are already differentiated including:

Riffian, Atlas, Anti-Atlas centering in Morocco

Kabyle largely in Algeria and Tunisia

Tamazight centering in Central Sahara, S. Algeria


Nubian-Libyan, Libya, Nubia, Cyrenaica mingling with Hamites of Egypt Cyrenaica

Chad is crossed by the Sahel migration, herders, and trade languages may include proto-Hausa, (or does Proto Hausa date to 3750 BC)

Tuareg Dialects

Guanche Dialects

Egyptian During Kurgan I the first Semitic people invade Egypt. The language takes on a Semitic grammar this will become             Proto-Coptic, then Coptic

Sudan receives both invasion and immigration of Semites fleeing the drying-out of savannah and prairie in Arabia, and concurrently peoples from the desiccating Sahara. These are the roots of Cushite dialects.

4000-3750 Atlantic IV, warm, Grand Climate Optimum IV

Proto Indo-European, Yamnaya Culture: Pontic (N of Black Sea), Caspian, Aral, Balkhash to Baikal

Proto old-Arabic expansion into and throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Note that superimposed upon the map of Western Europe it’s perhaps surprising to see the land areas are about the same. The Arabian Peninsula, however, is highly vulnerable to shifting of the Temperate Climatic vortex. When rains are plentiful the peninsula teems with animal life thriving on its rich prairie grasses and savanna. When rains stop such horrors as the Empty Quarter – a lifeless barren of sun-blasted rocks and sand, appear. To survive, to feed hungry children, people migrate out of such places.

Here are two entries of words from the alphabetical list in the Linguistics Reference for Prehistory:


Allerød-Divisions of Nostratic



BorealSub-Divisions of Nostratic

Basque  buruz (about)


GERMANIC German umher adv. herum adv. (about), um, (about… + acc.)….ich weiss nichts davon (I know nothing about it, that, the matter), ungefahr (approximately), uber (concerning), die Kehrtwendung   n. (the about-face, the about-turn, f.)

LATIN anti, (before)

French autour, adv. (about), Presque (almost, about), a peu pre,(almost), autour de, environ, vers, prep. (about) sur le point de (about, at the point of, almost), vers onze heures (toward eleven o’clock, almost eleven),  au-dessus de, prep. (above), en haut, en outre, ci-dessus, adv.(above), surtout, (above all), sus-dit,  (above-mentioned), en sus de, (over and above) 

ARYAN   Hittite hant (forehead)

German die Stirn (the forehead), das Hirn (the brain)

Greek anti (before)

Indo-Iranian Sanskrit ut, ud (above)


ABRADE (bore, drill, polish, rub)


GERMANIC Old High German draen (turn, twist) German die Schurfwunde n. [the abrasion, f. (usually an organic injury)], Scheuer adj (abrasive), das Schleifmittel n. [the abrader (usually a tool) nt.],

Hittite malla-, mellin (grind)

Celtic Old Irish tarathar (borer, drill)

Greek  skhizo (rip apart, split), skidaros (narrow, lean, thin), Homeric Greek teiro rub, scour, grind), teretron (drill),

Aryan Sanskrit chinatti (snip,cut-off pieces), chidra (pierced), chidram (hole), Avestan sidaram (hole),  Sogdian w-synd-(tear), Blauchi sindag (split), Persian gu-sistan (rip-up, tear-up, tear)

Baltic Latvian skidrs (lean, thin) Lithuanian trinti (scour, rub, polish)

ROMANCE Latin scindo (split, tear-apart), molo (I grind), tero (scour, grind, rub, polish, sharpen), Spanish la abrasion n. (abrasion), abrasivo adj.(abrasive), brusco, agrisivo figurative (abrasive)

SLAVIC Old Church Slavic meljo (I grind), tiro (rub, polish)


The Draconian Corridor Timeline