Popes, Kings, and Templar Things

Dr. Robert Duncan-Enzmann & Michelle Snyder

From Aspects of History, 1399–1400 AD, Enzmann Archive Manuscript

1187: Saladin

An Indo-European Kurd whose family was forcibly converted to Islam takes Jerusalem from the Crusaders and establishes the short-lived Egyptian Ayyubid Dynasty.

1200-1300: Knights Templar

Templars amass fortunes in Syria, develop banking in Venice, Genoa, Avignon, and within the Germanic areas of Europe. Venice and Genoa become the leading commercial and maritime states of Europe. One consequence is that with the growing prosperity in Italy many cities are able to gain their independence from the Germanic Holy Roman Empire. For the Vatican, this is a positive situation, and the Knights Templar are left alone.

1218-1221: The Fifth Crusade

A summertime invasion of Egypt intended to gain control of the Nile Delta and Cairo quickly occupies Damietta which is undefended. The Egyptian Sultan offers the Crusaders Jerusalem in exchange for being left in peace. Legate Pelagius, representing the Pope, controls this Crusade. He will not allow a single leader to control the Crusaders. 60,000 Crusaders march on Cairo against the advice of everyone who knows the terrain and are promptly trapped between the Flooding Nile and Egypt’s fleet. They surrender. His Holiness the Pope blames Germany’s Frederick II for the disaster, excommunicating him for not arriving with support for the Legate Pelagius Fifth crusade.

1227: Frederick II

The Pope excommunicates Frederick II again when both he and his army fall sick and cancel an attack on the Holy Land.

1241: The Vatican

Brings Knights Templar and Knights Hospitallers of St. John close to a state of war in order to destroy the Templars.

1250-1273: The Great Interregnum

The period between the death of Frederick II and the accession of Rudolf I when there was no king.

1253-1356: Ruprecht I

Rhineland’s Count Palatine, House of Wittelsbach

1260: Mongols

Defeated in the battle of Ain Jalut by Egyptian Mamluk Army. The Mongols gradually retire to Khazar regions where, in 1295, the Mongol Khan becomes a Muslim. Considerable effort was made by Christians to convert him; enormous effort was made by the Muslims and Jewish Khazars to convert him to Islam. As a Moslem he and his successors, abetted by the Khazars, were instrumental in annihilating the Greeks of Anatolia and Greek and Celtic populations in the Balkans. They launched mercenary armies of subject populations into Western Europe in a series of race wars. Orders of knights descended from the Knights Templar fought with these Asiatic invasions for the next seven centuries.

1279-1325: Wurttemberg’s Count

Eberhard II

1279-1325: Wurttemberg Count

Eberhard II

1283-1303: Grand Duke of Moscow     Daniel, House of Rurik

1285-1314: King Philip IV the Fair

King Philip’s advisers, Pierre Flotte and William Nogaret, whose parents were burned at the stake for heresy and who hated the Pope and Catholic Church, contrived heavy township tallages. They taxed wheat, wine, and salt, inflated the currency by debasing coinage, expelled the Jews, extorted and expelled the Lombard bankers. Philip IV, rather than manipulating them, was finally manipulated by the Vatican and its Jesuits (soldiers of Christ). It’s true that he brutally humbled His holiness, Pope Boniface.

In absolute secrecy in 1307, Philip IV’s adviser William Nogaret, whose parents were tortured then burned to death by the Church, leads an expedition to Italy and joins forces with the Colonnas, imprisoning the Pope.

After the Templars are forced to give their treasure, their castles, and their homes to the Hospitallers in 1313, Philip IV forces large sums out of the Church. The Templars were destroyed and the Lombards savagely crippled. King Philip IV could have established a powerful centralized French state by 1350, but during the century following Philip’s death, the only able French monarch was Charles V.

1290: Knights Templar

Centered at Avignon the Templars engage in banking, soon establishing major centers in Paris, London, Frankfurt, Paris, Venice, Rome, and Genoa. They have armed forces capable of transporting large gold bullion shipments across Europe and at the same time invent the checking system that is universally used to this day.

1291 Knights Templar

At Acre Falls, the Templars retreat to Cyprus. Malta Knights Hospitallers of St. John, loyal to the French King and Vatican, bring rumors of Knights Templar heresy and blasphemy to the Vatican.

1294-1303: Pope Celestine V

1295-1312: King Fernando IV

Of Castile and Leon

1298-1308: Holy Roman Emperor

Albert I of Austria

1301: Turks War

Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus employs the services of the Grand Catalan Company against the Turks. From 1305-1307 The Grand Catalans lay siege to Byzantine’s capital Constantinople. Under Osman I, Turks defeat Byzantines at Bapgaon.

1302: Turks War

Turks drive Crusaders out of their last Syrian stronghold.

1303-1325: Grand Duke of Moscow     House of Rurik

1303: Pope Boniface VIII

Died while imprisoned by William of Nogaret at Anagni

1303: Black Guelf

Gains power in Florence

1303-1314: Pope Boniface VIII

Quarreling with King Philip IV of France His Holiness Pope Boniface VIII dies a prisoner in the Vatican.

1303-1304: Pope Benedict XI

Niccolò Boccioni

1305-1314: Pope Clement V

Raymond Bertrand de Got

1306: French King Philip IV

Expels the Jews from France, confiscating their gold, land, and properties. Great numbers of Jews find refuge in Avignon which is both independent and under protective ownership of the Vatican.

1307-1314: Templars

The Order of the Templars is placed on trial by King Philip IV

1308-1315: Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VII, or Henry IV King of Luxembourg.

1310: Europe’s silk industry

Spread from Greek Byzantine (Constantinople) through Italy to Lyon, France. Silk has a long history:

  1. 1000 BC Chinese silk is traded with Iranian Parthia.
  2. 60 AD Chinese silk and Malayan animals reach Rome via oceanic route to India’s ports.
  3. 300 AD illustrated and annotated, silk paintings of Buddha are popular in China.
  4. 500 AD Chinese silk-screen printing becomes popular in Japan.
  5. 530 AD Byzantine Emperor Justinian tris to produce silk from smuggled silkworms.

1311: Knights Templar

Charged with blasphemy against God at the Holy Catholic Council of Vienne.

1312: Pope Clement V

Punishes the blasphemy and heresy of Knights Templar, decreeing that they will forfeit all their worldly possessions to the Knights of St. Johns. However, the property goes in small part to the Vatican and in greater part to King Philip IV the Fair, of France. Templars are suppressed by His Holiness, then the Italian Principalities, the Vatican’s Armies, and the French king confiscate all Templar treasures, monies, lands, homes, and worldly goods, after which the Templars are tortured, massacred, and their wives and children are sold as slaves.

1312-1350: King Alfonso XI

Of Castile and Leon

1313-1314: Knights Templar

Thousands of Knights Templar are tortured to death by King Philip of France for heresy and blasphemy and to discover where great quantities of gold have been allegedly hidden. William Nogaret takes charge of torturing the Knights Templar supposedly to find their gold and give it to the Knights of St. John, who will guard and care for it for his Holiness the Pope.

In reality, all property confiscated by Nogaret goes to the French king. The Vatican tortures and burns to death a few hundred Knights Templar for heresy, and concurrently His Holiness has a number of Lombards tortured, executed, and expropriated for the crimes of blasphemy, heresy, and banking, which the Church forbids. Lombards have been considered blood enemies of both the Holy Catholic Church and of Jews for many centuries.

It is alleged that His Holiness the Bishop of Worms also tortured then burned to death Knights Templars, profiting thereby – again on behalf of the Church.

1314-1326: Frederick

Frederick of Austria rival to Henry-VII & Louis-IV

1314: Jacques DeMolay

In a monstrous perversion of justice Grand Master of Templars is burned alive at the stake in Paris, ordered by His Holiness Pope Clement V.

1314-1332: Pope Clement V

His Holiness Pope Clement V, a Frenchman, moves the Papal residence from the Church’s Territories in Rome, and the Vatican to Church territories and fortress at Avignon.

1314-1347: Louis IV, Wittelsbach King

Rival to Henry IV and Frederick of Austria, who were supported by the Vatican to prevent the organization of a strong centralized German State. In 1314 Louis IV challenged the Vatican and Papal Power over Europe. He reunited German-speaking Europe, founding an empire with boundaries as extensive as Charlemagne’s.

1314-1316: King Louis X

The Quarrelsome

1315: Clement V

His Holiness the French Pope moves the Vatican from Roman Italy to Church territories and Fortresses at Avignon France.

1316-1334: Pope John XXII

Jacques Deuce

1316: King Jean I

1316-1322: King Philippe V the Tall

1320-1384: John Wycliffe

Doctor at Oxford and Master (Dean) at Balliol, translated the Bible into English, lived simply, and was condemned on the grounds of common sense, the Dogma of transubstantiation of wine and bread into the flesh and blood of Christ. He was hated by Rome.

1322-1328: King Charles V the Fair

1325-1341: Grand Duke of Moscow       Ivan I Kalita, House of Rurik

1325: 8th King Afonso IV

Rules 1325 to 1357, House of Burgundy. Jews find these years uncomfortable. The King requires them to wear a yellow star. The King’s taxes are very high. The Catholic Clergy blames Jews for spreading the Black Death about 1350 to incite mob violence.

1326-1360: 2nd Ottoman

Sultan Orhan Sultana

1327-1336: King Alfonso IV

1328-1330: Nicholas V

Pietro Rainalducci

1332-1334: No Pope

Two-year vacancy of the Papal throne

1334-1342: Pope Benedict XII

Jacques Fournier

1334-1342: Pope John XXII

1336-1387: King Pedro IV

1341-1353: Grand Duke

Moscow, Simeon, House of Rurik

1342-1352: Pope Clement VI

Pierre Roger de Beaufort

1342-1382: Expulsion of Jews

Jews expelled during the (bubonic) Black Plague. It is followed by a general expulsion in 1360 and abrogation of all debts owed to Jews. At that time the prime diaspora was Spain, Babylon, and Khazaria.

1342-1352: Pope Benedict XII

1344-1392: Wurttemberg’s Count

Eberhard III joint ruler with Ulrich IV, 1344-1366

1346-1378: Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV of Luxembourg & Bohemia

1346: Crecy Battle

Edward III embarks with 10,000 men; his fleet mistaking orders debark for home. Edward, isolated, marches toward friendly territory in Flanders. He crosses the Seine at Poissy and bribing Gobin Agache, crosses the Somme at Blanque Taque Ford. At Crecy-én-Ponthieu he finds an excellent position and stands defense. The battle begins at 6:00 PM. With 800 on the left and 1,800 on the right, 700 in a second line flanked by over 1000 archers on the left and right who can fire 10 arrows a minute, volleying 20,000 a minute into the enemy. Edward first destroys the Genoese crossbow regiments to his left.

The French numbering 30,000 to 40,000 charge the English center fifteen times. English archers, well-and continually supplied with arrows from the baggage train in the rear, can fire tornadoes of 20,000 arrows a minute into charging French knights, a total of 100,000 during a five-minute charge. Edward loses about 100 men. The French lose between 12,000 and 18,000, including the King of Bohemia, Duke of Lorraine, and ten Counts with 1,500 knights and squires.

At this time France’s population is five times that of England’s. However, France’s feudal system, fearing to arm the peasants with a weapon like the longbow or to properly train them, is savaged by the English for a century.

1349: Black Death Persecution

Persecution and deportation of Jews from Germany during the plague.

1350-1366: King Pedro the Cruel

Of Castile and Leon

1350: Ottoman Turks

Strongly allied with Ashkenazi Kharzas both replace and proselyte the Golden Hoard into their Empire.

1350: King Louis the Great

Hungarian diaspora’s population is about 10,000 males.

1350-1364: King Jean II the Good

1352-1362: 232nd Pope Innocent VI

Etienne Aubert

1352-1362: Pope Clement VI

1353: Turks

Mamelukes invade Armenia and take the capital ending Armenian independence.

1353-1359: Grand Duke of Moscow     Ivan II, House of Rurik

1353-1354: Turks

Invade Greece, take Gallipoli

1355-1378: Holy Roman Emperor

Charles-IV, Luxemburg King from 1411 to 1437

1356-1390: Ruprecht I

Rhineland’s Holy Roman Elector Palatine, House of Wittelsbach

1357: Turks

Invade Byzantine take Adrianople

1357: 9th King Pedro I

Rules 1357 to 1367 House of Burgundy. The King’s personal physician is Moses Navarro. Conditions are generally pleasant for Jews.

1359-1389: Grand Duke of Moscow

Dimitry-I-Donskoy, House of Rurik

1360-1389: 3rd Ottoman

Sultan Murad I

1362-1370: Pope Urban V

(Guillaume de Grimoard)

1362-1370: Pope Innocent VI

1362: Turks

Invade Byzantine. After the second Adrianople battle, they rename it Edirne.

1363: Turks

Invade Byzantine take Tzympe, Philippopolis. Peter I of Cyprus invades Alexandria and is driven out.

1366: Pivotal Event

English parliament refuses to pay feudal tribute to the Pope.

1366-1367: King Enrique II

Of Castile and Leon from Tres Tamara. Deposes Pedro the cruel

1367: 10th King Fernando

Ferdinand, House of Burgundy. 1383 to 1385 the succession is disputed.

1367-1369: King Pedro the Cruel

Of Castile and Leon is restored.

1369-1379: King Enrique II

Of Castile and Leon is restored.

1369: Tamerlane

Becomes Great Khan, Ka-Khan

1370-1308: Pope Gregory XI

Pierre Roger de Beaufort

1370-1378: Pope Urban-V

1371: Turks

Invade Bulgaria defeat them at Samokov. Invade Greece occupy western Thrace.

1378-1417: Pope Gregory XI

In 1377 Pope Gregory XI leaves the Papal State of Avignon and returns to the Papal State of Rome.

1378: Popes of the Great Schism

A split within the Catholic Church starting in 1378 to 1417 in which bishops residing in Rome and Avignon both claimed to be the true pope and were joined by a third line of Pisan popes in 1409.

1378-1389: 235th Pope Urban VI

Bartolomeo Prignano

1378-1394: Clement VII

Robert of Geneva

1378-1400: Holy Roman Emperor

Wenceslaus, Bohemian King

1379-1390: King Juan I

Of Castile and Leon

1385: 11th King Joao I

Rules 1385 to 1433, House of Aviz.

1385-1410: King Martin I

Of Aragon, King of Sicily from 1409.

1389-1402: 4th Ottoman

Sultan Bayezid I

1389-1404: 237th Pope Boniface IX

Pietro Tomaselli

1390-1406: King Enrique III

Of Castile and Leon

1394-1423: Benedict XIII

Pedro de Luna

1395: Tristan Quilt

Trapunto embroidery quilt in London’s Victoria and Albert Museum in which 14 cartouches show Tristan’s war with Ireland’s king on behalf of King Mark. In Sicilian dialect, in Gothic characters, the Tristan and Isolde Legend is told.

1396: John Huss

Inspired by Dr. Wycliffe, gives a series of lectures at Prague urging a return to simplicity and condemning the corruption of the Holy Roman Church.

1400: Frederick

Of Brunswick and Luneburg, rival emperor. November 11th War between Mongol Timur and Syrian Emirs at Aleppo.

1415: War

Ceuta, North Africa is conquered by the Portuguese.

1417-1419: Chinese explorers

Land in Mogadishu, Brawa, and Malindi of East Africa

1418: Madeira Islands

Occupied by Portugal

1431: Azores

Discovered by Portuguese mariners.

1432: Gonzalo Cabral

Discovers the Azores

1453: Fourth Crusade

Second consequence of the crusades is the ravaging of Constantinople during the IV crusade, applauded and encouraged by the Pope and Catholic hierarchy, long enemies of Greek Orthodox Christianity.

Much has been surmised and written about the Templars, but little is actually known. Theories abound. Origins of the Templar Tradition can only to an extent be riddled out. History of the loose organization, traditions, and culture of what were called Templars is in fragmentary form, known to a few. It can be worked out. Some entries in the Enzmann Archive Chronologies are of particular interest.

Some things are known instinctively, never with study, almost without thinking, by contriving a logical sieve of:

1) Conventional history

2) Falsehood

3) Current religious, political, or social correctness juxtaposed with fragments from pot shards and broken statues to curious writings, tombstones, and anything else coming to hand.

Templar ethics originate deep in time – tens of millennia older than the name applied to the group emerging during the Crusades. This is evident in the Enzmann Archive Chronologies and Cosmology manuscripts. One cannot legislate that (pi) p = 3. Furthermore, human law, social practices, stories, and encouraged or proscribed behavior cannot long violate the reality of the God-given truths woven into life’s genetic code. Violation, attempted violation, camouflage, and deception are the essence of plot. Observance of God’s given code – the truth – is the essence of the purported Templar Code.

Sapiens Sapiens, individuals of 70,000 BC and certainly earlier, could, with proper education and instruction, have operated a space shuttle or any other mechanism of today. Did extraordinary individuals over these millennia, deep in the Mid-Neanderthal Wars, leave writings, formulations, even secrets? It’s likely, and eventually knowable.

71,000 BC Ethics: Treatment of your friends, associates of your hunting clans, wives, daughters, and children is one of honor, of respect, of care for those orphaned, widowed, or otherwise unfortunate. These ethical roots lie far deeper in time than 71,000 BC. By this time, they are almost genetically codified in Sapiens DNA and cytoplasmic (genetic) memory. It’s a sickness to behave otherwise – a transient of mankind’s evolving technology.

By 5800 BC the practice of ‘Templar farms’, a cultural ethic based on caring for families, widows, orphans, wives, daughters, sons was evident.

With and under Baldwin and Bohemund’s crusades, the Templars flourished. Their ethics are naturally rooted in Charlemagne’s genius for government in spite of his Pious son’s destruction. Their commercial genius is gained from Lombard survivors of the Charlemagne’s conquest followed by Papal murder and oppression verging on genocide, but particularly from the Magdalenian Atlantic Tradition from 5850 – 3750 BC, which centered upon the family and its farm.

This is a function of what we call the loess-land economy. It is diametrically different from the economy emerging with the conquerors surging out of the Arabian Peninsula who were never family farm centered, but rather plantation slave-gang centered.

There is a struggle between organizing all of mankind about the family, beginning with family farms and continuing with a family-centered World Civilization, or organizing humanity as plantation slave-gangs and continuing with gang labor as technology changes. This forms a great clash between rule by Templar Individualism and rule by Illuminati-epistemologists, where all power is to the people who rule herds of human cattle: the Plantation Slave Gangs in which having a family is first of all forbidden then deemed to be just an institution which will naturally vanish as it has among mankind’s other domestic animals and herds, where stud-breeding is done for desired qualities in the herd.

Circa 1000 BC Hiram, designer, master architect, and supervisor during the construction of Solomon’s Temple Complex was sacrificed, murdered, at the temple’s completion.

The Architects and Hiram, which is not his real name, were of Pelasgian extraction: Pre-Dorian, Mycenae, Minoan therefore pre-Philistine. He may have been murdered by early-Carthaginians at odds with Tartessa, by the Powerful Phoenicians to whom Solomon was both beholden and subject, or the Falasha groups at odds with Carthage, Phoenicia, and Indo-European Celts. The Falasha were not for or against Solomon, who eventually allied with them through the Queen of Sheba to dominate the Red Sea Trade.

The Templars (which was not their name when Solomon reigned) vowed revenge. Circumstances were not unlike those about DeMolay’s murder-robbery 2,300 years later.

In 1314 Jacques  DeMolay, Grand Master of Templars was burned alive at the stake in Paris as ordered by His Holiness Pope Clement V, at which time it is said DeMolay cursed the king. The king died shortly after, and from 1315 to 1317 a cold and wet Little Ice Age devastated harvests in Europe.

After the massacre of the Templars by Philip V, it’s certain that Templar treasure and a number of Templars escaped to Britain and thence to Scotland to found the Scottish Rite.

King Philippe IV, called The Fair, was interested in telluric currents and their control of Ley Lines (a term he did not know, though he did have the concept). The Inquisition floated the notion that they searched for the “Templar’s secret knowledge” of the umbilicus telluris location; that the Inquisition sought information concerning undulations of the serpent kundalini; that the Inquisition deplored the serpent and the serpent’s encouragement of sodomy. This was patent nonsense that wasted Philippe IV the Fair’s energies.

Astronomers are familiar with the dark hole, a nighttime phenomenon in which – due to both refraction and diffraction – the darkest part of the sky is opposite the Sun. Mariners are familiar with the pre-dawn darkest before dawn refractive/diffractive phenomena. The writer notes that these optical frequency phenomena are also found in the microwave radar frequencies, and even occasionally at short wave radio frequencies.

The sequence:

1- Earth Shadow Lunula

2- Indigo and Crimson Rays

3- Sunrise

4- The white-hot daytime sun

5- Sunset is known by the Greeks

The old religious connotation of this sequence weakened between 1200 to 800 BC during the Greek Dark Age, almost forgotten by the time of the Phocean-Greek renaissance, due to suppression.

The Templar wears a great Red Cross, symbolizing sunrise. The chronicles tell of Resurrection as of Dawn and of an Eastern Star.

William of Ockham (1287 –1347) was an English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. He was one of the major figures of medieval thought and was at the center of the major intellectual and political controversies of the 14th century. His Holiness the Pope banned Occam’s books in 1339, placing his works on the “Index Librorum Prohibitorum.” They are destroyed wherever possible so that their corruption will not spread. It was rumored he was a Templar of the Ancient School, but that was bad-mouthed and propaganda. Nevertheless, he represented the values of the alleged hidden rulers.

1612 Baphomet. Mahomet Mohammed’s Idol and Alter (Mohammed was strongly supported as a potential Pope; the effort failed; and to undermine the Christianization of Arabs, Egyptians, and Africans, to stop the Christianization of Persia and India Islam was invented.) Templars were accused of worshiping the idol Baphomet and were tortured and executed. They were accused of Guenonism. The guenon is a long tail African green monkey that Pope and France’s King accused the Templars of worshiping.

In 1660 London’s Royal Society, associating with Masons was organized with help from Invisible College members. In 1666 Paris Académie Royale des Sciences was established.

London’s Great Lodge is founded in 1717, based on operative mason’s lodges which evolved into ethical, symbolic, philosophical masonry at the heart of a World Empire, and would be the World were it not first of all for the American Revolution and then for the utterly savage, disgustingly depraved World War I and World War II England fought with Germany to balance the power in Europe.

In 1721 France’s Desaguliers inspires England’s Protestant minister Anderson to draft the London Lodge’s constitution. It is they who unknowingly discover that the roots of Masonry as they knew it dates to at least 1500 years before the construction of Solomon’s Temple. It touches on the oldest symbols for the trowel which date to the construction of pre-Mycenae Minoan concrete constructions of c. 3900 to 2200 BC. However, neither man was aware of this – they would have had to know the signs and symbolism of the labyrinth (concrete) and the butterfly or crocus symbolism of Linear A and Anatolian Hittite scripts.

Later in 1721 Russia’s Peter the Great founds Masonic Lodge and Anderson drafts English Masonry’s Constitution. In 1730 France’s Montesquieu was initiated in London.

In 1737 England’s Ramsay asserts Scottish Rite Masonry is of Templar origin and thereafter is in conflict with London’s Lodge.

In 1738 Prussia’s Crown Prince Frederick is initiated into Masonry. He later supports the Encyclopedists, members of the Société des gens de Lettres, a French writers’ society, who contributed to the development of the Encyclopédie from June 1751 to December 1765 under the editors Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert.

In 1756 Baron von Hund established the strict Templar observance. It’s variously implied that Bougure’s “Sur la direction qui’affectent tous les fils à plomb” has something to do with Templars and-so-forth. This is tangential nonsense.

By 1766 Encyclopedists, led by Diderot, planned and organized new world publications. An encyclopedia is an all-inclusive book about everything. Such publication is violently opposed by “those who would rule.” They opposed general literacy, destroyed libraries, opposed the printing of books cheap enough for an average citizen to buy, contrived monstrosities such as the “Great Soviet Encyclopaedia” and more vicious texts when universal literacy could not be prevented.

Recently, most extraordinarily, in the United States of America, liberal government funding – some tens of millions of dollars – was spent to “study how government interference with the free exchange of information on the internet can be prevented.” Is this credible? Might one suggest exactly the opposite was intended? Especially when one looks at the list of the persons conducting the study!

In 1776 Bavaria’s Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati.

American Presidents beginning with Washington, possibly excepting Kennedy, have been Masons. The statue of Liberty was conceived by Masonic Initiate Lafayette, then financed, constructed, and emplaced to a great extent through the efforts of Joseph Pulitzer of New York, N.Y, publishing magnate.

Both the Knights Templar and Knights of St. John have forebearers and descendants. Histories are vague, as are historical lines of descent and the interests of those involved. The subject supplies endless fodder for romantic histories and plot theories. There is even some little-known and rarely mentioned real history which is submerged, deleted, and expunged to clean it up for those who come hereafter; deciding what’s true and what’s false – that which is unacceptable to those who write history.

Proto History of Astronomy