Proto History of Astronomy

Proto history of Astronomy 

Dr. Enzmann (Dates are circa and BC) 

Avery Stones, 2500 BC, Enzmann Archive Image


Local Bilzingsleben

Terra Amata 

Solar V observations


Würm II Glacial Sequence

Local Blombos Site, South Africa, Solar V 


Würm II/Würm III interglacial

Draw circle using cord-as-compass

Earliest known Rhone-Rhine-Danube Civilization One’s astronomical observations


Würm IV Glacial sequence begins, ends at Gardena  

Vogelherd Site, Germany

Thread-winder carved as image of child engraved with lunar-solar calendric 

28,000 Aurignacian

Vogelherd, Early Rhone-Rhine Danube Civilization One

Combine local solar/lunar observations


Local-and-area definitions of 12-month Zodiac

19,000 Gardena

Würm/Wisconsin IV interglaciation impels migrations

  1. Spain, Parpello Site

Extensive textile industry with “written contracts” on stone, bone, and ivory between weavers & far-ranging hunting groups.

Altamira Calendric, photo by Doc E, Enzmann Archive Image

18,000 Altamira 

Area Altamira Site Solar/ Lunar observations record yearly migrations shown about a hexagram later known as Solomon’s Seal (circled)

Regional Solar/Lunar/Seasonal observations

14,500 Lascaux

Lascaux Site Area 

Combine Solar/Lunar observations of tetra faunal migrations

13,200 Meindorf

Bara Bahau Site France Magdalenian -V- Culture Village Map

Years Activities written in Lead-Line script

12,500 Bølling

Area Gönnersdorf sites combine Solar/Lunar/Stellar Zodiac observations

Perseus with star Algol as fire-maker

Map of Europe including Rhine, Rhone, Massif Central, Parpello S. Spain, Coa Valley Portugal, Central Spain 

10,000 Allerød

Area Göbekli site Observatory Syria sighting holes as diffraction lenses with pillars as solar/lunar observatory.

Solar Lunar Stellar observatory

Note: Dryas II impels migration from the Rhone-Rhine-Danube center to what was then an enormous peninsula including the Balkans and Anatolia. Its Eastern boundary is the enormous Kavalan epicontinental sea, to about 9000 BC as the Allerød begins. The Black Sea is a small lake.


Cappadocia (See: Two Mysterious Cities)

Göbekli Tepe (See: The Animals of Göbekli Tepe)

8500 Pre-Boreal

Dryas III glaciation impels migration

Area & regional Sphinx at Giza Site Egypt  


Area proto-Stonehenge Site draw North-South line oriented to star

Draw East-West line, bits done by bisecting the north-south line with cord-compass

Plumb bob to establish vertical

Water to establish horizontal

Note: c. 3800 BC Callanish Site N. Scotland discovery of North Alexander Thom: “Aligning a megalith observatory to due north was very difficult as in those times the North Star Polaris wasn’t there, nor was any other clearly visible star.” 

7500 Boreal

Area-wide agricultural utilities

Early Carnac Site 

Pendulum to measure time

Standard Length from standard-time pendulum

Analemma to Spirals

Catalhöyük (See: Two Mysterious Cities)

Regional Carnac

Göseck continental agricultural observatory network, for accuracy reference is now stellar


Continental Europe combine agriculture/mariners’ observatory network

Venus clock, Longitude measured


Stellar Cursuses Observatories are probably first built

5600 Atlantic 

Continental Göseck Site agricultural utility of the Old Vanir European Rhone-Rhine culture 

5400 Continental Goseck Site

Agricultural utility of the LBK culture: Annual Solar Spiral as precursor of analemma 

366 ¼ day Sidereal Year supplants 365 ¼ day Solar year as stellar observations are more accurate

Days of week named: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn

4800 Golan Heights 

Excavated by Yonathan Mizrachi, Mattanyah Zohar 

Vanir global observatory network


Giant Stellar Observatories: Thornborough, Porchester-Thames

4500 Continental Alaise Site

Agricultural utility of Old-Vanir Europe continued until Caesar defeats the Celts

Global Observatory Network by British Grooved-Ware Culture including Newgrange, Byblos, Giza, Mount Moriah, Nabata, Lixus, Azores, Harappa

Global observatory mariners’ network: Bulgaria, Lixus, Azores, Nabata, Byblos, Jerusalem, Cape Verdi, Cape Town, and Magellan Straits

Note: Phoenician-African circumnavigation would only have succeeded with knowledge of winds and currents of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The Phoenicians, well established in Northwest Africa Morocco, and one-time Lixus, could not have sailed southward against the strong Southwest African northward-flowing South Atlantic Gyre Benguela Current, nor, rounding the Cape of Good Hope of South Africa, headed homeward on the East climatological winds and gyre currents. Knowledge of these elements were gained from maps by Vanir-Æsir mariners who constructed them millennium earlier. 

Note: Dakar – Cape Verde Islands some hundred kilometers offshore is at the confluence of three climatological circulations: The South Atlantic gyre, intertropical convergence zone, and North Atlantic gyre. This was discovered by Europe’s megalith mariners and certainly had to be known to the Phoenicians.

Note: The Peri Reese map, a fragment of a world map showing the Antarctic, testifies that landings must have been made during the Atlantic warm optimum. There are legends among the Polynesians of both Central Pacific and New Zealand voyages to the cold Antarctic.


North & South American trader voyages from Europe


Regional to global utility 

The inception of Thornborough Site stellar occlusion observatory radius, not limited by diffraction from standard time, found with pendulum.

Standard length (Prof. Thom’s megalith yard)

Standard volumes, Standard weights

Bryn Celli Ddu y Gawres Site

Global voyager’s Venus Clock longitude 


Precession of the Equinox

Orkney Island, Brodgar Site  

Azimuth angle with the use of plumb-bob elevation angle with a water-filled ring. 

2300 Atlantic era  

Kurgan II Little Ice Age impels migrations


Kurgan III Little Ice Age impels migrations

Dogon Astronomy based on telescopes  

Kurgan-III Dagon’s & first Phoenician wars to blockade the Mediterranean

For more Chronology from Dr. Robert Duncan-Enzmann see ENDEAVOR